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PLS12 MT1 SG - PLS 12 Midterm 1 Census every 5 years of...

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PLS 12 Midterm 1 Census: every 5 years of farms and ranches shows the amount/size of farms, plants, and com- modities Farm- any place from which $1,000 or more of agr. products were produced or sold Crops- plants only; $143 billion nationwide and $23 billion California California: - produces 99% of almonds, dates, figs, grapes, raisins, kiwis, nectarines, olives, clingstone peaches, persimmons, pistachios, plums, dried plums, and walnuts - exports to Japan, Canada, Mexico, EU, and China - central valley has richest agr. in country and number one state in US for agricultural (animals and crops) production $33.9 billion Anatomy: - shoot system preforms photosynthesis and reproduction, while roots anchor plant, take up water and minerals, and store starches - sex expression is determined by genetics, enviromental factors (male=long hot day female=short cold day), and hormonal/chemical factors - leaves have a cuticle outer layer to prevent water loss, xylem that transports water, and pholem takes sap and sugars out of the plant Cotyledon- “seed leaf” is the primary embryonic leaf within a seed; stores nutrients for the new plant; needed until plant can do photosynthesis for itself Monocotyledons- about 50 thousand species; seedlings have 1 seed leaf; long, narrow “true” leaves with parallel veins; wheat, barely, oats, rice, corn, sugar cane Dicotyledons- 200 thousand species; seedlings have 2 seed leaves; broad “true” leaves with net-like pinnate or palmate veins; tomato, soy beans, canola, strawberry, grape, almond Meristems- specialized tissues in plants that can continuously give rise to new cells and organs; they create dermal tissue (outer covering), vascular tissue (moves water, solutes, hor- mones, gives mechanical support; made of xylem), and ground tissue (food manufacture and storage) Angiosperms- flowering plants, they make up our food; have exaggerated parts and no longer survive in the wild Perfect flowers- contain both male and female reproductive parts Imperfect flowers- miss either a male or female reproductive parts Monoecious plants- separate male and female flowers on the same plant; squash, corn Andromonoecious plants- separate male and perfect flowers on the same plant; cantaloupe Dioecious plants- separate male and female plants; asparagus, spinach - 2 types of pollination: self-pollination happens when anther of same plant goes to stigma on the same plant (lima bean); cross-pollination happens when pollen on a plant travels to another though insects, wind, birds, or water and fertilizes ovules of second plant (sunflower, corn) Population: - increased after man went from hunter/gather to modern agriculture, and due to high fertility rate - creating more food to feed population: extensification- to increase the amount of land cultivated or plowed or intensification- increase yield/hector, but reduces biodiversity and creates waste; has a limit but over the years has preserved many natural resources and fed people
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- rate of yield has been increased over the years, but we may be reaching the limit of growth, yet
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