Lecture 05 - 011811

Lecture 05 - 011811 - HIV / AIDS HIV / AIDS Overview of...

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HIV / AIDS HIV / AIDS Overview of Lecture 1. Biology •R e v i e w o f V i r u s e s HIV Structure, infection Opportunistic Infections
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Viruses • 2 kinds – DNA or RNA (aka Retroviruses) • What do they do? 1.Infect Host 2.Avoid/incapacitate innate and acquired immune system defenses 3.Take over host cell machinery 4.Replicate and exit the cell (Lytic Cycle) What is a Retrovirus? • A Virus that uses RNA to store its genetic material • How does a retrovirus virus “infect” a host cell? Retroviral Infection 1. Infection 2. RNA > DNA (incorporated into host genome) – uses reverse transcriptase 3. DNA > mRNA (including viral mRNA) 4. mRNA > viral protein 5. Protein assembly 6. Budding, further infection
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Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) • Retrovirus – Genome is made of RNA • HIV is an obligate parasite – Require host cell machinery to replicate • Targets T helper cells (CD4) of the immune system Structure of HIV Structure of HIV • Envelope – Virus’ Membrane. Derived from the host cell’s plasma membrane • gp 120 , gp 41 •M a t r i x – Layer of protein, ensures structural integrity of virus •C
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HIV Replication/Life Cycle 1. Binding and Entry 3. Integration into host genome 4. Activation 5. Assembly 6. Budding • HIV binds to CD4 T cell – Mediated by gp 120/ gp41 • Fusion of the viral & host cell membrane • Release of viral capsid into host cell’s cytoplasm • Breakdown of capsid releases viral genome & 3 essential enzymes • Reverse Transcriptase (RT) – Synthesizes viral DNA from RNA • RNA strand gets degraded • ssDNA gets replicated, forming a DNA duplex
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3.Integration into host genome • The dsDNA translocates into the nucleus • Integrase – Integrates viral DNA into host genome – HIV becomes a provirus • Can be dormant for many years 4. Activation • Upon activation, the viral DNA gets transcribed into viral mRNA • Viral mRNA migrates to the cytoplasm, where the host cell’s machinery synthesizes viral proteins from the mRNA. •P
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This note was uploaded on 03/18/2011 for the course BILD 2 taught by Professor Schroeder during the Winter '08 term at UCSD.

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Lecture 05 - 011811 - HIV / AIDS HIV / AIDS Overview of...

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