364 Exam 1 Study Guide-1 - 364 Exam 1 Study Guide This...

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364 Exam 1 Study Guide This guide is NOT exhaustive! It is meant as a tool to help guide your studying. Focus on lecture materials and in-class labs. Good Luck!!! Concepts to know: Order of basic events from the first life through the emergence of primates Don’t worry about memorizing the dates Focus on the order of events and the importance of each step Basic mammalian and primate traits and behavioral tendencies What does it mean to be a mammal? - viviparous = give birth to live offspring (as opposed to eggs) - heterodont dentition = several dental forms - endothermic = heat and energy generated internally through metabolic activity (by processing food) - Homeothermic —they have a constant body temp - Mammalian reproductive strategy emphasizes fewer offspring and more nurturing - Cenozoic era was when mammals dominated (however mammal roots go back to the Triassic period, long before the first dinosaurs evolved) - There are three types of mammal: o Monotremes —egg-laying mammals o Marsupials —pouched mammals o Placental mammals - What traits are unique to primates? 1. Limbs = grasping hands and feet Able to rotate forearm—feature lost in more specialized mammals Movement of collarbone –lost in quadrupeds Hip and shoulder limb movement While other mammals have claws—PRIMATES HAVE NAILS (except some prosimians) with sensitive pads and tips giving them prehensile ability They have an opposable thumb Prehensile and opposable thumbs provide grasping device for moving from tree to tree 2. Locomotion Flexibility of limbs allows for several forms of locomotion Most primates are arboreal quadrupeds Locomotion grouped into 3 forms: i. Vertical clinging and leaping ii. Semibrachiation—used by new world monkeys iii. Brachiation—used by orangutans, gibbons, siamang
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Tendency to stay erect when sitting, standing 3. Dentition—adapted to grinding and chewing Like majority of mammals, they have 4 kinds of teeth: Incisors, Canines (for biting, cutting), Premolars, Molars (for chewing and grinding food) primates have reduction of the number of teeth compared to other mammals generalized placental mammal dental form: 3.1.4.3 in old world monkeys, the anthropoid dental formula: 2.1.2.3 some new world monkeys: 2.1.3.3 general size and shape of teeth of primates adapted more chewing and grinding that biting or tearing most primates have molars/premolars with low, round cusps— allowing them to process most types of food carnivores have molars/premolars with high pointed cusps adapted for tearing meat 4. brain structure and function compared to other mammals, primates have large complex brain almost all parts of the brain (esp cerebrum and brain stem) are enlarged more surface area and space for more nerve cells in primates, brain is enlarged and areas concerned with vision (occipital lobes) and touch (parietal lobes) are dramatically expanded in mammals such as dogs, the olfactory bulb is expanded—
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This note was uploaded on 03/19/2011 for the course ANTHRBIO 364 taught by Professor Frisancho during the Spring '10 term at University of Michigan.

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364 Exam 1 Study Guide-1 - 364 Exam 1 Study Guide This...

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