lecture14 - Lecture 14 Lecture 14.1. Formation and Early...

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Lecture 14 Lecture 14 14.1. Formation and Early History of Earth 14.2. Origin of Cellular Life 14.3. Microbial Diversification: Consequences for Earth’s Biosphere 14.4. Endosymbiotic Origin of Eukaryotes 14.5. The Evolutionary Process 14.6. Evolutionary Analysis: Theoretical Aspects 14.8. Microbial Phylogeny 14.9. Application of SSU rRNA Phylogenetic Methods 14.10. Phenotypic Analysis 14.11. Genotypic Analysis 14.12. Phylogenetic Analysis 14.13. The Species Concept in Microbiology 14.14. Classification and Nomenclature
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4.0 3.5 3.0 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 Billion Years Ago Formatio n of O 2 atmosph ere Cyanobacterial microfossils (oxygenic photosynthesis) Earth formed First microorganisms? algae, marine invertebrates insects mammals No free O
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3.45 billion year old rocks from South Africa: 3.45 billion year old rocks from South Africa: bacteria microfossils bacteria microfossils Fig. 14.1
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14.1 Formation and Early History of Earth Stromatolites Fossilized microbial mats consisting of layers of filamentous prokaryotes and trapped sediment Found in rocks 3.5 billion years old or younger Comparisons of ancient and modern stromatolites provide evidence that Anoxygenic phototrophic filamentous bacteria formed ancient stromatolites Oxygenic phototrophic cyanobacteria dominate modern stromatolites
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ancient and modern stromatolites: ancient and modern stromatolites: Fig. 14.2
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possible scenario for evolution of cellular life possible scenario for evolution of cellular life from RNA life forms from RNA life forms
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energy-generating scheme for primitive cells: energy-generating scheme for primitive cells: FeS + H 2 S → FeS 2 + H 2 ; ∆G’ = -42 kJ/reaction
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major landmarks in biological evolution: major landmarks in biological evolution:
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Geological section, Pilbara region of Western Australia (http://www.doir.wa.gov.au/GSWA)
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Apex Chert, Western Australia Schopf, J.W. 1993. Microfossils of the early Archaean Apex Chert: new evidence of the antiquity of life. Science 260:640-646 3.465 billion year old microfossils 3.465 billion year old microfossils
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Bitter Springs Chert, Central Australia 850 million year old fossil cyanobacteria 850 million year old fossil cyanobacteria (http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/bacteria)
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850 million year old fossil cyanobacteria 850 million year old fossil cyanobacteria Bitter Springs Chert, Central Australia (http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/bacteria)
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(http://www.doir.wa.gov.au/comandenvir/ancientfossils)
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(http://www.doir.wa.gov.au/comandenvir/ancientfossils) ancient stromatolites ancient stromatolites camera lens cap
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(http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/bacteria) layered layered stromatolite stromatolite calcium carbonate precipitate
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living stromatolites, Shark Bay (Australia) living stromatolites, Shark Bay (Australia) (http://www.doir.wa.gov.au/comandenvir/ancientfossils) (also see Madigan et al, Fig 11.2)
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(http://www.discoverwest.com.au/hablin.html) Stromatolites, Hamelin Pool, Western Australia Stromatolites, Hamelin Pool, Western Australia
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Stromatolites, Hamelin Pool, Western Australia Stromatolites, Hamelin Pool, Western Australia (http://www.discoverwest.com.au/hablin.html)
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14.2 Origin of Cellular Life
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This note was uploaded on 03/19/2011 for the course BIOL 140 taught by Professor Dr.joshneufeld during the Spring '10 term at Waterloo.

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lecture14 - Lecture 14 Lecture 14.1. Formation and Early...

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