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Unformatted text preview: Dono Tippett 9-15-10 Ecology Exam 1 Study Guide Chapter 1 (Pages 1-9) (Figures 1.1-1.8)- Ecology : the study of relationships between organisms and the environment.-has been a focus for human study for as long as we have existed.-Hunters and gatherers: habits of their animal prey and where to find food plants.-Agriculturalists: variation in weather and soils and how such variation might affect crops and livestock.-Ecologists may study individual organisms, entire forests or lakes, or even the whole earth.-Ecologists often spend as much time studying nonbiological components of the environment as the spend studying organisms-Advances in ecology have come from theoretical models or ecological research in the laboratory. Overview of Ecology-Discipline of ecology addresses environmental relationships ranging from those of individual organisms to factors influencing global-scale processes.-ecology of individuals has been the domain of physiological ecology and behavioral ecology.-Physiological ecologists have emphasized the evolution (a process by which populations change over time) of physiological and anatomical mechanisms by which organisms solve problems posed by physical and chemical variation in the environment.-Behavioral ecologists: focused on evolution of behaviors that allow animals to survive and reproduce in the face of environmental variation.-Population ecologists: adaptation, extinction, the distribution and abundance of species, population growth and regulation, and variation in the reproductive ecology of species.-biological components of environment take us to ecology of interactions such as predation, parasitism, and competition. *Figure 1.1 Levels of ecological organization* (Page 2)-other approaches to ecology explore the effect of interactions on population structure or on properties of ecological communities.-ecological community is defined as an association of interacting species that links community ecology with the ecology of interaction.-Community and ecosystem ecology both are concerned with the factors controlling multispecies systems. -objects of their study differ:-Community ecologists focus on organisms inhabiting an area, ecosystem ecologist include the physical and chemical factors influencing the community and focus on processes such as energy flow and decomposition.-all communities and ecosystems on earth are open systems subject to exchanges of materials, energy, and organisms with other communities and ecosystems.-Geographical ecology- Biosphere: The portions of earth that support life; largest special scale and highest level of ecological organization, falls within the realm of global ecology The Ecology of Forest Birds: Old Tools and New-Robert MacArthur- observed the warbler bird, interested in testing ecological theory-1955: MacArthur studying 5 species of warblers in spruce forests of northeastern North America....
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This note was uploaded on 03/19/2011 for the course ECO 3315 taught by Professor Vodopich during the Fall '10 term at Baylor.
- Fall '10