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lecture5_1_19_11_large - LECTURE 5 Gender and...

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LECTURE 5: Gender and Intra-Household Resource Allocation
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Two very prominent and distinct issues involving gender and the demand for health: •(1) Gender bias in household resource allocation – suspected to produce differential mortality rates by gender (differential treatment of children by gender) for example treatment of children by gender), for example •This is thought to be intimately intertwined with the social, economic/labor, and marriage market weight placed on men vs. women
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Two very prominent and distinct issues involving gender and the demand for health: •(1) Gender bias in household resource allocation producing •(1) Gender bias in household resource allocation, producing differential mortality rates by gender (differential treatment of children by gender) hi i h h b i i l i i d i h h i l •This is thought to be intimately intertwined with the social, economic/labor, and marriage market weight placed on men vs. women •(2) Systematic differences between men’s and women’s choices in intra-household resource allocation (with women generally favoring greater investments in child health and household favoring greater investments in child health and household public goods) •The ‘empowerment’ of women (improvements in women’s b i i i hi h h f l ) i b bargaining power within the home, for example) is seen by some as a means of improving child health •*Note: These two issues can interact as well, as Nancy Qian studies in her paper for today (in China, women seem to prefer more equal treatment of sons and daughters than men)
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(1) Gender bias in household resource allocation, suspected to produce differential mortality rates by gender •In 1990, Amartya Sen wrote a famous article in the New York Review of Books formalizing a point he had been making about formalizing a point he had been making about gender ratios around the world for a while •To be fair, Princeton demographer Ansley Coale had also long championed this issue •In short: gender ratios in some developing countries are very different from those in wealthy countries – a phenomenon that Amartya Sen famously terms “Missing Women” •The obvious question is: Why? •Before taking this head-on, let’s first consider observed Before taking this head on, let s first consider observed differences around the world
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“Missing Women:” •In the United Kingdom, France, and the United States the ratio of women to men (i e the sex ratio) is roughly 1 05 of women to men (i.e., the sex ratio) is roughly 1.05 •Slightly more males than females are born •But women have higher survival rates at every age (even in ) utero !) •However, the sex ratio is far below 1 in many countries (at the time Amartya Sen was writing): •Egypt: 0.95 •Bangladesh China West Asia: 0 94 •Bangladesh, China, West Asia: 0.94 •India: 0.93 •The exceptionalism of Kerala: 1.04 P ki 0 90 •Pakistan: 0.90 Sen calculates more than 100 million women missing worldwide •(Be careful in papers: sometimes ration is male:female, other times it is female:male, this gets confusing)
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Why might there be “Missing Women?”
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