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Unformatted text preview: Nutrition for Ultra-Endurance Ultra-Endurance Athletes
Strategies for Success Carolyn Smith, MD Marquette University What is an Ultra-endurance Athlete? What Individual Individual who participates in events that are longer than 6 hours or greater than 26.2 miles. 26.2 Single day or multi-day events Triathlons, ultramarathons, cycling, Triathlons, adventure races adventure Popularity of events increasing Examples of ultra-endurance events events Ironman Ironman Triathlon (2.4 mile swim, 112 mile bike, 26.2 mile run) bike, Western States 100 mile trail run Trans-America Run Road 100K (62 mile) & 24 hour runs Race across America (3000 mile coast-toRace coast bike race) coast Eco Challenge (multi-day adventure race) What makes nutritional needs of ultra-endurance athletes unique? ultra-endurance Length of event/energy expenditure Need to consume calories during event Increased risk of dehydration Nutritional requirements of training Maintain weight; maximize training effects Nutritional needs for recovery
glycogen stores; build/repair tissue Replenish Ignoring Nutrition Ignoring Most Most commonly overlooked component of “training” “training” Many concern themselves a week to few Many days prior to an event days Able to complete event Performance will suffer Recovery will be prolonged Must be priority for success Daily nutritional needs Daily Dependent on training cycle Includes macronutrients, micronutrients Includes and fluids and Maintain energy balance to maintain Maintain weight weight Well fueled for successful training Need to focus on timing of meals and Need snacks throughout the day snacks Estimated Energy Requirements Requirements Numeric guidelines provide an estimate Take into account gender, size, resting Take metabolic needs and physical activity level metabolic Men: 662 – 9.53(age in yrs) + PA [15.91 (wt Men: in kg) + 539.6 (ht in meters)] in Women: 354 – 6.91 (age in yrs) + PA [9.36 Women: (wt in kg) + 726 (ht in meters)] (wt PA level: 1.6-2.5 Macronutrient: Carbohydrate Macronutrient: Majority Majority of studies support high CHO diet (>60%) during training and week before competition competition 50-65% of total energy needs from CHObased food groups (bread, cereals, grains, based milk/dairy, fruit, veggies) milk/dairy, Ultra-endurance athletes: 6-10 g/kg/day ?Ceiling effect of 500-600 gram CHO/d ?Ceiling above which no further resynthesis occurs above Macronutrient: Protein Macronutrient: Protein Protein metabolism dependent on adequate CHO intake adequate Needs of endurance athletes increased Needs due to increased protein oxidation due 10-30% total energy needs 1.2-1.4 g/kg/day Increase to 1.3-1.8g/kg/day if plant based diet Protein Protein or AA supplementation not necessary if high quality protein consumed Macronutrient: Fat Macronutrient: Fat Fat in diet essential for performance and recovery recovery Source of essential fatty acids that body Source can’t synthesize and fat-soluble vitamins can’t Essential Essential FA’s found in salad dressings/oils, margarine, canola oil, fish products margarine, 20-35% of total energy requirement Low fat (<15%) not recommended No evidence to support high fat (>70%) Pre-exercise fueling Pre-exercise Must Must be individualized; dependent on GI tolerance, duration, intensity of workout tolerance, Caloric intake and timing will differ if event Caloric in am or pm in Enough calories to prepare for upcoming Enough activity activity Neither hungry nor with undigested food If multiple exercise bouts/day will need If multiple meals and/or snacks multiple Familiar Pre-event meal Pre-event High in CHO CHO CHO amounts shown to enhance performance range from 200-300g consumed 3-4 hours before exercise 3-4 High complex CHO night before/morning of Lower GI better tolerated Liquid meals if sensitive stomach Food low in fat and fiber Moderate protein “CHO Loading” no longer popular practice Glycemic Index Glycemic
Refined Carbs High GI Sugar Jam Soft drinks Candy, cookies, pastries Cakes, white bread High fructose corn syrup Fruit Drinks Sports drinks, sport gels Maltodextrin Tortilla chips, wheat pretzels Low sugar baked goods Ensure, liquid meals Most sports bars (e.g. Clif) Unrefined Carbs Ripe fruit Fruid juice Dried fruid Wheat pancakes, bread Some cereals White rice Low GI Apples, unripened bananas Whole grain breakfast cereals Breads, bagels Wheat pasta, brown rice, grains Starchy vegetables Fueling during Event Fueling For For marathon distance or less, intake requirement considerably less than ultrarequirement endurance event requirement Require Require little more than water +/- electrolyte mixed in with carbohydrate solution Battling Battling ultra distances & conditions requires high levels of fluids and calories just to survive survive Energy expenditures upwards of 8,500-13,000/event Macronutrient Macronutrient “Shorter contribution dependent on duration/intensity
duration”/Higher intensity: CHO primarily Longer duration/”Lower intenstiy”: All 3 macronutrients Fueling Strategies during event Fueling Consuming Consuming 30-60 gram CHO/hr unequivocally shown to extend endurance unequivocally Should begin shortly after activity onset Best to consume at 15-20min intervals Best rather than large amounts every few hours rather Glucose, glucose & fructose, other simple Glucose, sugars, maltodextrins all effective sugars, Evidence inconclusive when protein Evidence added added Sports Drinks, Gels, Beans & Blocks Are they better? Are Contain Contain 6-8% CHO & electrolytes in easily digestible form digestible
CHO Occasionally contain protein, AA, vitamins Can also contain caffeine Provide Provide fuel for muscles; Na+ stimulates thirst thirst Convenient In reality, form of CHO doesn’t matter Calories during Event Calories Sources wide-ranging Any form fair game (“fuel the fire”) In extreme ultra-endurance events, foods high in In fat appropriate to provide caloric dense options, satisfy taste and satiety but difficult to digest satisfy Don’t rely on protein—inefficient energy source Taste fatigue common Greatest limitation is GI tolerance Be cautious of excess fructose (honey, fruit/fruit juices) GI physiology GI Critical Critical factor in rate of carbohydrate ingestion/absorption ingestion/absorption GI complaints common Stomach emptying, transit time, Stomach malabsorption contribue malabsorption Gastric emptying affected by dietary fiber, Gastric meal volume, meal temperature, meal composition, osmolarity, exercise intensity, environmental stress intensity, Training the Gut for Competition Training Ideal Situation: Completely empty gut Tidbits of evidence suggest training Tidbits adaptations in gut occur adaptations Trained Trained to accommodate increasing volumes fluids/food fluids/food Trained to enhance gastric emptying “Learning effect” with repeated ingestion of Learning food/fluid during exercise food/fluid Additional research needed Practical Recommendations to Minimize GI distress Minimize Stay hydrated during exercise Practice drinking and eating with training Avoid over-nutrition before and during Avoid event event Common sources of fluid and food Gatorade/Sports drink Gatorade/Sports formula formula Energy gels (GU, Energy Accelergel, Hammergel) Accelergel, Salt solutions Fruit juice (?diluted) Defizzed ginger ale, coke Coffee/tea/hot cocoa Honey/maple syrup Ensure Chocolate milk Fresh/canned fruit Applesauce, Jello Yogurt/yogurt smoothies Bugles/pretzels/chips Bagels, tortillas, PBJ Potatoes Soup Cookies String cheese, tuna Candy Pizza Post-event & Recovery Fueling Post-event Timing Timing and composition dependent on training session; when next bout will occur training Strong evidence supporting “window of Strong opportunity” for glycogen synthetase opportunity” Unnecessary to time post-event fueling if Unnecessary rest >1 day between sessions rest Type of CHO consumed affects glycogen Type synthetase synthetase The addition of protein poorly characterized Window of Opportunity Window Consuming Consuming 1.2-1.5 g CHO/kg within 30 mins of exercise and every 2 hours up to 6 hours enhances glycogen levels than when delayed 2 hours when Simple sugars and whole foods with high Simple glycemic index (GI) > lower GI foods glycemic Synthetase activities equal with CHO Synthetase alone or CHO w/protein and/or fat alone What about Hydration? What The The need in distance events is well documented documented Goal is to maintain euhydration H20 and fluid requirements increase when H20 muscle glycogen is no longer contributing (after 20 miles or 3.5 hours) (after Dehydration increases core temperature Dehydration and decreases performance and Exercise blunts thirst mechanism Exercise = Heat Exercise Sweating Sweating + evaporation from skin surface = primary method of cooling body (affected by heat/humidity) (affected Cooling mechanism is only effective if Cooling adequately supplied with fluids adequately Sweat rates with exercise 0.3-2.4 L/hour Ultra athletes try to keep deficit <2% Ultra Mandatory weigh-ins at ultra-endurance Mandatory events: >5% loss in body weight is cut-off events: Consequences of Fluid Loss Consequences
0-2% Beginning thirst; Beginning Performance loss at 1.8% Performance Thirst; 7% performance loss Cramps; Strong thirst; Cramps; 20% performance loss 20% Severe cramps; Severe Heat exhaustion Coma Death 2-3% 3-6% >6% Fluids Fluids Rate of ingestion dependent on event, climate Fluid balance not always possible if sweat Fluid rates exceed gastric emptying rates Intake rates vary by individual: intake of Intake 1L/hour about the most one can tolerate 1L/hour Gastric emptying maximized when large vol. Gastric in stomach; contains Na+, cold fluids Gastric emptying rate delayed with hypertonic Gastric solutions; dehydration solutions; General fluid guidelines General Daily maintenance: 3 L/d & 2.2 L/d (m/f) Drink 16-20oz 2 hours before exercise Drink (preferably sports drink) (preferably Drink additional 8-16 oz sports drink 10-20 Drink minutes before exercise minutes Drink 6-8 oz fluid every 15-20 minutes of Drink exercise (include sodium) exercise After exercise, replenish with 20-24oz After sports drink for every #body weight lost (plus additional 25-50%) (plus Electrolytes Electrolytes Essential Essential to function for all living cells within the body within Na+ and K+ are the major electrolytes Na+ Imbalance greatly impacts performance: Imbalance mild fatigue/nausea/cramps loss of motor skills/disorientation Major route of loss (esp Na+) = sweat Electrolyte Losses Electrolyte Losses Losses will vary by fitness level, sweat rate, intensity/duration of exercise, heat acclimitization acclimitization No single sodium recommendation No established for athletes established Assuming sweat rate of 1L/hour: Electrolyte loss: Na+ 1200-1500 mg/hr K+ 250 mg/hr K+ Energy drinks supply some but not all: Gatorade: Na+ 110 mg/8oz K+ 30 mg/8oz K+ Orange Juice: Na+ 25 mg/8oz K+ 500 mg/8oz K+ Gatorlytes: Na+ 770 mg/packet K+ 390 mg/packet K+ Succeed E Caps: Na+ 341 mg/tab K+ 21 mg/tab K+ Commerical soup: Na+ 760 mg/serving 1 tsp salt: Na+ 2000mg 30 pretzels/hr = 1200mg sodium Medium banana = 451 mg potassium Yogurt (8 oz) = 520 mg potassium How do ultraendurance athletes replace? replace? What’s on the Horizon What’s Train Low/Compete High: Concept Concept suggesting improved training adaptations when muscle glycogen kept below normal during training session below Only shown in untrained subjects; not verified Only in trained athletes in Caffeine as an ergogenic aid Amino acid supplementation Anti-oxidant supplementation Putting it all together Putting 24 hour run at 5200 feet Sweat rate during heat of day: 29 oz/hour; Sweat decreased to 15 oz/hr (averaged 20 oz/hr) decreased Goal of 60 grams CHO/hr (avg. 63 g/hr) Goal of 100 gram of protein (total 106 g) Goal of <10% fat (avg. 8.5% of total calories) Total calories consumed: 7043; total needs 15,471 Average mile pace: 10:53; 128 miles) Summary: Fluid and calorie needs Summary:
Ultraendurance athlete 5000-14,000 5000-14,000 additional calories additional 16-48 oz additional 16-48 fluid per hour activity fluid 1000-2000mg 1000-2000mg additional sodium per hour activity hour 250-500mg additional 250-500mg potassium/hr activity potassium/hr Average person 1500-2000 1500-2000 calories/day calories/day 64-80 oz fluid/day 2500mg Sodium/day 4000mg 4000mg Potassium/day Potassium/day Advice of Ultraendurance Athletes Advice Keep it simple Keep it natural/minimally processed Keep it varied and balanced Don’t be rigid Eat frequently Hydrate Eat for recovery Avoid common deficiencies ...
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This note was uploaded on 03/19/2011 for the course ACCT 440 taught by Professor Smith during the Spring '11 term at Saginaw Valley.
- Spring '11