bio lecture 14 - – One direction completely exchanged –...

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BIO 311D LECTURE 14 Exchange and transport systems (in animals)
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Circulatory systems Simple invertebrates: no circulatory system - gastrovascular cavity
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More complex invertebrates… blood blood vessels heart
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Vertebrate circulatory systems Cardiovascular system Heart – Atrium or atria (receiving) Ventricle or ventricles (returning) 3 kinds of blood vessels Arteries (away) Veins (towards) Capillaries
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Why have a separate respiratory and systemic circuit? Vertebrate circulatory systems
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Mammalian cardiovascular system
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Mammalian heart
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The cardiac cycle
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Heart beat
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Arteries, veins, and capillaries
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Blood flow Area Velocity Pressure Venous blood
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Transfer of substances from / to blood
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blood
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Gas exchange
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Gills Outfoldings of body surfaces suspended in water Ventilation increases flow of water over gill surfaces
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Countercurrent exchange of oxygen
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Lungs One location Requires circulatory system
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Respiratory system of a mammal
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Breathing Positive pressure breathing Negative pressure breathing
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Breathing in birds
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Unformatted text preview: – One direction, completely exchanged – Two inhalation/exhalation cycles Regulation of breathing Brain – Pons – Medulla Arteries – Aorta – Carotid sinuses O 2 transport CO 2 transport Deep sea divers with lungs Deep sea divers with lungs Adaptations: – Storage – Conservation – Fermentation Osmoregulation and excretion Osmoregulation Cytoplasm interstitial fluid blood Marine animals Osmoconformers Osmoregulators Freshwater Animals-All regulators Excretory systems Vertebrate kidneys • Organs • Organized tubules • Osmoregulation and excretion Osmolarity changes in a nephron and in the kidney Kidney adaptations Vampire bats Summary of excretory systems Filtration reabsorption secretion excretion Renal artery afferent arteriole glomerulus proximal tubule loop of Henle distal tubule collecting duct renal pelvis ureter urinary bladder urethra...
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This note was uploaded on 03/20/2011 for the course BIOLOGY 311D taught by Professor Zhaimingzhao during the Fall '10 term at University of Texas.

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bio lecture 14 - – One direction completely exchanged –...

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