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Psychology 2070 Exam 1 Study Guide

Psychology 2070 Exam 1 Study Guide - E xam 1 Study Guide M...

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Exam 1 Study Guide Multiple Choice 1. Define development; 2 approaches a. Development: the pattern of movement or change that begins at conception and continues through the human life span b. Traditional approach – emphasizes extensive change from birth to adolescence, little to no change in adulthood, and decline in old age c. Lifespan approach - from conception to natural death; emphasizes developmental change throughout childhood and adulthood 2. Know the difference b/w life span and life expectancy a. Life span – based on oldest age documented; species specific; humans currently 122 years b. Life expectancy – average number of years that a person can expect to live; currently 78 years for humans; based on year you were born and changes over time. 3. Characteristics of development a. Life long - Early adulthood is not the endpoint of development; No age period dominates b. Multidimensional - Consists of biological, cognitive, and socioemotional dimensions; Multiple components within each dimension c. Multidirectional - Some dimensions (or components of a dimension) expand, and others shrink; language: we get better as we get older but our ability to learn it is better the younger we are; Height: we get taller as we develop then we get shorter as we get old; Our brain’s processing speed first increases then decreases as we age
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d. Multidisciplinary- Development is of interest to psychologists, sociologists, anthropologists, neuroscientists, and medical researchers e. Contextual - All development occurs within a context (setting); each setting is influenced by historical, economic, social, and cultural factors; three types of contextual influences (see next question). f. Plasticity - capacity for change; degree to which characteristics change or remain stable 4. Contextual influences a. Normative age- graded influences – everyone has this influence at a particular age; similar for individuals in a particular age group; occurs in most people’s lives at certain ages ; ex. Starting school, puberty b. Normative history-graded influences – based on the time period; events that occurred during your life; common to people of a particular generation because of historical circumstances; shapes and influences the ways we behave and think; ex. WWII, Great Depression, 9/11, Civil Rights movement; c. Non-normative life events – unique events that don’t happen to everyone; unusual occurrences that have a major impact on the individual’s life; ex. Death of parent at a young age, winning the lottery, teenage pregnancy 5. Socioeconomic Status determined by 3 factors a. SES def.- a person’s position within society based on occupational, educational, and economic characteristics; those with Low SES tend to live in situations that are more noisy, violent, less parents, ect. and these effect their development.
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Psychology 2070 Exam 1 Study Guide - E xam 1 Study Guide M...

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