Handout 3_Undernutrition0

Handout 3_Undernutrition0 - PERS 2002 SPRING 2011...

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Click to edit Master subtitle style 3/22/11 PERS 2002 – SPRING 2011 Undernutrition and Disease Handout 3 2.8.2011
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3/22/11 Hunger Hunger is a term which has three meanings: the uneasy or painful sensation caused by want of food; craving appetite. Also the exhausted condition caused by want of food the want or scarcity of food in a country a strong desire or craving
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3/22/11 Undernutrition and Disease Hungry less able to fight disease Depresses immune system Pathogens colonize - further depletion of essential nutrients Lack of calories (energy) and/or micronutrients compromises immune system Further, increased susceptibility to infectious and chronic disease
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3/22/11 Malnutrition Malnutrition indicates a lack of some or all nutritional elements necessary for human health -Chronic and acute -Undernutrition -Overnutrition Two basic types of undernutrition: Protein-energy (calorie) malnutrition (PEM/ PCM) Vitamin and mineral deficiencies
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3/22/11 Chronically Undernourished
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3/22/11 Protein-energy malnutrition Most lethal form of malnutrition/hunger condition resulting from insufficient consumption of energy and protein Mild—stunting, underweight Severe—reduced head circumference, wasting, starvation
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3/22/11 Vitamin & Mineral Deficiencies Hidden hungers “hidden” because individuals do not necessarily look underweight bodies are unable to function efficiently or development is impaired Result from poor food quality 1 out of 3 people in developing countries are affected Most important in terms of health consequence: Vitamin A, Iron, & Iodine
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3/22/11 PEM
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3/22/11 Vitamin A deficiency
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3/22/11
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3/22/11 Overnutrition: Obesity A type of malnutrition Not due to lack of calories but too many Poor food choices Expands the definition of malnutrition
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Life Expectancy: Country 1750 1850 1950 2000 UK 37 /2170 40 /2360 69 /3230 78 /3220 France 26 /1657 42 /2480 67 /2785 79 /3512 US 51 43 68 77 India 39 63 China 41 71 Japan 61 81
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Food Balance Sheet Region kcal/capita/ day g protein/capita/ day Africa 2434 51.3 Asia 2713 71 Europe 3250 97.1 Oceania 2991 94.1 Central America 2953 80.5 South America 2838 75.8 North America 3713 113.0
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3/22/11 Hunger in the USA? Food shortage—no Household poverty—yes Personal deprivation—yes
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3/22/11 Hunger Situations and Access to Food shortage – regional Food poverty – household Food deprivation – individual
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3/22/11 World produces enough food to feed everyone World agriculture produces enough food to provide everyone in the world with at least 2,720 kilocalories per person per day Principal problem is that many people in the world do not have: Sufficient land to grow Income to purchase enough food
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3/22/11 U.S. Anti-hunger ¢ Entitlement programs Food stamps ( Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) SNAP helps low-income people and families buy the food they need for good health. Apply for benefits by completing a State application form. Benefits are provided on an electronic card that is used like an ATM card and accepted at most grocery stores. Through nutrition
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Handout 3_Undernutrition0 - PERS 2002 SPRING 2011...

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