READING QUESTIONS - CHAPTER 1 1.Reality- that which is real...

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CHAPTER 1 1.Reality- that which is real (is, was, and always will be), Truth- truth is knowledge of what is, was and always will be. THEREFORE- truth is the knowledge of reality 2. How do we know something? 1.experience- trial and error 2. Tenacity-tradition 3. authority- estab. Beliefs 4. Intuition- agrees with reason 5. science- scientific method 6. theology- revelation and inspiration 3. 4 Everyday Errors 1.Overgeneralization- all cats are indoor cats, because the only 2 cats I saw were indoors 2.Selective or inaccurate observation-the observed the cats at the outside door only once. But maybe isf she let them out several times, they would become fore comfortable with going out 3. Illogical reasoning- she assumed that other people feel guilty about keeping cats indoors, maybe they don’t 4. Resistance to change- she was quick to conclude she had no need to change her approach, already had her own routines 4. 4 Main goals of social research 1.Description-social phenomena are defined and described 2. Exploration-seeks to find out how people get along in the setting under question, what meanings they give to their actions, and what issues concern them 3. Explanation-identify causes and effects of social phenomena and to predict how one phenomenon will change or vary in response to variation in another phenomenan 4. Evaluation- determining impact of social programs 5. Science - an objective, accurate, systematic analysis of a determinant body of empirical data, in order to discover recurring relationships among phenomena. 1.Objective- unbiased, things as they really are 2. Systematic- methodical, regular procedure 3. Deterministic- everything occurs is a function of a finite number of causes, if cause is known event can be predicted Scientific method-the ideas, rules, norms, techniques, and approaches that the scientific community values 5. 5 Norms of Scientific Community 1. Universalism- irrespective of who conducts research 2.Organized Skepticism- scientists should scrutinize evidence intensly 3.Disintrestedness- scientists must be neutral 4. communalism- knowledge must be shared with others 5. Honesty- demand honesty in research 6. 2 Goals of Science- 1. Description- what is out there? 2. Explanation- Why? Meaning -objective is to make scientific knowledge claims (Replication) CHAPTER 2
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1.A “good” research question FEASIBILITY given the time and resources available to finish investigation SOCIAL IMPORTANCE- will ? make a difference in social world SCIENTIFIC RELEVANCE- does ? help to resolve contradictory research findings in social theory 2.Social Theory-logically interrelated set of propositions about empirical reality (ex- the social world as it actually exists) ex- deterrence theory (crime and punishment)vs. labeling th.- labeled is deviant Role of Theory in Research- they help us make connections to general social processes and large bodies of research. 3. Major steps in research process-
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This note was uploaded on 03/21/2011 for the course SOCIOLOGY 328 taught by Professor Dufur during the Fall '10 term at BYU.

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READING QUESTIONS - CHAPTER 1 1.Reality- that which is real...

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