Sociology 328—Review for Final
NOTE that there may be overlap between readings and class material. You will
likely have notes from class discussion that supplement the readings.
Coakley—general ideas and trends.
Guttmann—be able to describe the general patterns of sport participation and
spectatorship over time. What’s changed? What hasn’t?
-Greeks invented sports
not as cult or preparation for warfare, but as ends in themselves, muscular
christianinty- sports fans acting in immoral ways, NOW sports fans are 1.
Passive (don’t participate actively in sports, consumers of sport) and 2.
Active, but activity is destructive rather than constructive- surrender
autonomy in crowd, unruly mobs
Hypothesis- 1. sport spectators are more likely than non-spectators to be
actively involved not only in sorts but in cultural activities of all kinds,
including politics and 2. Spectator sports increase fans hostility and
aggressiveness rather than to render them apathetic or provide catharsis
Greek- actual participants in sports, ethos- physical excellence, spectators sat
on ground, athletes were male citizens, women and slaves excluded, married
women (if not all) were forbidden to attend Olympics, even as spectators,
spectators still acted like they were on drugs, forgot themselves completely,
Romans- merely spectators, physical exercize rather than sports, used for
military, wrestling, boxing, chariot, gladiator games, gladiators- criminals,
free men or slaves, function was originally religious, seats organized by social
Middle Ages- nobility, bourgeouisie, and peasantry- tournaments peasants
staged were for amusement of nobility, games resembled war, not intended
for sepectacle- usually in field, spectator role increased as sport became
tamer and more civilized, pavilions constructed, times organized, women did
not participate, but did watch, archery and shooting typical nobility,
peasants- rugby, football, soccer
Renaisannce Europe- sports become more civilized and regulated,
Chidester—how is sport like religion? How is sport like the public practice of
religion is a “system of symbols”, ex- Coca cola as a sacred symbol of
America, religion is also “rule goverened behavior”
Baseball as a religion:
-sense of continuity in changing America
-sense of uniformity- an American family that attends the same church, both
clap hands to hymns, distinctive robes, both have organs
-represents sacred space of home- a ritualized space
-sacred time of ritual- full dress procession and ritual
Baseball feeds the soul, involves superstition, that of the invisible (spitting
before every pitch), has rite of communion and excommunication