class 17+18-energy systems

class 17+18-energy systems - ENERGY SYSTEMS Fossil Fuels...

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ENERGY SYSTEMS Fossil Fuels and Alternatives
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People have been using various energy sources for a very long time. Coal, oil, gas, solar, and wind power were all used before 1200 B.C. Fire, animal labor, and hot springs were used long before that. But only since the industrial revolution have we harnessed energy sources on a large scale. History of Energy Use
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ENERGY SYSTEMS
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Fossil fuel use has been rising for years ENERGY SYSTEMS
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ENERGY SYSTEMS Fossil fuels make up the great majority of our energy supply These fuels are not renewable and contribute to environmental degradation
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Fossil Fuels Coal, Oil and Natural Gas are formed from the remains of plants and animals that become buried and are then acted on by intense heat and pressure. The type of fossil fuel formed will depend on the source material and the specific burial conditions. Anaerobic (without oxygen) decomposition is required for fossil fuel formation. Anaerobic environments exist at the bottom of the ocean, in deep lakes, and in swamp sediments.
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Fossil Fuels 1. Plants and animals die 2. Organic material settles in anaerobic site and is partly decomposed 3. Organic material is buried 4. Heat and pressure alter chemical bonds 5. Coal, gas, oil formed
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Fossil Fuels Fossil fuels are distributed unevenly throughout the world
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Fossil Fuels Transport of oil around the globe
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Coal Formed 300-400 million years ago Used for thousands of years Primarily used for electricity generation Bituminous Coal Anthracite Coal
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Coal : Formation Several types of coal exist, depending on the amount of heat and pressure that overlying sediments have exerted.
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Coal
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Coal: Two forms of mining
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Coal: Electricity generation Heat from coal burning boils steam, that turns a turbine to power a generator.
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Oil Crude oil (petroleum) Sludge-like mix of hundreds of types of hydrocarbon molecules Forms at temperatures and pressures found 1.5–3 kilometers below ground Oil refineries sort the various hydrocarbons of crude oil by size Gasoline Other purposes (tar, asphalt)
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Oil
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Liquid oil exists in pores in rock deep underground. We must drill into rock to extract the oil by using a pressure differential. The more oil is extracted, the harder it is to extract: Primary extraction = initial extraction of available oil Secondary extraction = forcing oil out by pumping water or gas into rock to displace it Oil: Extraction
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Oil: Extraction
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Estimating Recoverable Reserves Technology limits how much oil can be extracted. Economics determines how much oil will be extracted. Proven recoverable reserve = amount of oil that is technologically and economically feasible to remove Oil: Extraction
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Oil: Refining Over 630 ˚C
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Oil: Refining
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many of the material goods we use every day. Oil:
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class 17+18-energy systems - ENERGY SYSTEMS Fossil Fuels...

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