Lecture 14+15-toxicology

Lecture 14+15-toxicology - Environmental Toxicology...

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Environmental Toxicology Studying the effects of poisonous chemicals and other agents in our environment.
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Toxicology The science that examines the effects of poisonous chemicals and other agents on humans and wildlife. Definitions Toxicity – the degree of harm that a substance can inflict Toxicant – an artificial substance with toxic properties Toxin – a naturally produced toxic substance
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The study of how toxic substances affect the environment as well as the behavior of toxicants in the environment. Why are we concerned with environmental health? Eco-centrism Toxic effects on wildlife could signal a threat to us. Environmental Toxicology
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Environmental Toxicology History Concern about the environmental effects of chemical pollutants began to become widespread in the 1960’s. “Silent Spring” (1962) by Rachel Carson showed the damage that was being done by DDT. Despite opposition, DDT was banned in 1973. Many other legislative steps were taken to help safeguard the environment. ** Watch the Video: DDT **
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Heavy use of Synthetic Chemical Pesticides in the 1950s
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Biomagnification of DDT
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What is the extent of the problem? Thousands of chemicals are manufactured and released into the environment. Accidental release (eg. Oil spills) Released on purpose (eg. Pesticides and household products) The toxicity of most of these compounds is unknown.
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Pollutants can travel Water and air movement Global transport Pollution is widespread 80% of streams contain at least trace amounts of some toxicants (USGS 2002) What is the extent of the problem?
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Global Transport of Pollutants
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Sources of Exposure
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Benefits of Chemical Use Increased food production Improved human health “Better living through chemistry”
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Identifying Hazards Physical and Climactic Hazards Earthquakes Hurricanes Biological Hazards Infectious disease Toxins Natural Chemical Hazards Radon Arsenic Lifestyle Hazards Smoking Diet Synthetic Chemicals
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Relative Amounts of Risk
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Toxicology is the study of how poisonous chemicals and other agents cause harm in living organisms. Concern about chemicals in the environment became widespread after the publication of “Silent Spring” by Rachel Carson in 1962. Thousands of chemicals are produced and released into the environment. These chemicals can travel widely and cause exposure from many sources. Chemical use also has clear benefits for human health and food production. Environmental scientists try to identify what
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This note was uploaded on 03/23/2011 for the course ENVSCI 101 taught by Professor Don'tremember during the Spring '11 term at Rutgers.

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Lecture 14+15-toxicology - Environmental Toxicology...

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