Chapter 3Atoms and Elements

Chapter 3Atoms and Elements - Ch. 3: Atoms and Elements...

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3/24/11 Ch. 3: Atoms and Elements Suggested problems are on iCollege and on the next slide
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3/24/11 Suggested Problems for Ch. 3: Atoms and Elements Concept Checks : all except 3.6 Sample Problems : all except 3.7 Questions and Problems : all odd up to 3.43 (omit 3.45-.49) do 3.49-3.55 (omit 3.57, 3.59, 3.61) do 3.63-3.75
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3/24/11 You are responsible for learning the names and symbols for common elements, so it may be helpful for you to get started soon (note cards help). Names of Some Common Elements and Their Symbols Aluminum Al Chlorine Cl Manganese Mn Copper ( cuprium ) Cu Argon Ar Fluorine F Nitrogen N Iron ( ferrum ) Fe Barium Ba Helium He Oxygen O Lead ( plumbum ) Pb Boron B Hydrogen H Phosphorus P Mercury ( hydrargyrum ) Hg Bromine Br Iodine I Silicon Si Potassium ( kalium ) K Calcium Ca Lithium Li Sulfur S Silver ( argentum ) Ag Carbon C Magnesium Mg Zinc Zn Sodium ( natrium ) Na ADD : neon (Ne), nickel (Ni), platinum (Pt), tin (Sn) and uranium (U) See p. 97 for complete list
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“periods” “Groups” (vertical columns) representative elements can be designate as 1A-8A or by Roman numerals IA-VIIIA (they are the columns that are TALLER) The center block are the “ transition elements A newer numbering system assigns group numbers of 1-18 across the table. Understand both.
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3/24/11 Practice Identify the Group 6A element in period 3 . What is the Group 2A element in period S, sulfur Ca, calcium Find sodium on the periodic table and give its GROUP NUMBER and PERIOD NUMBER. Group 1A, period 3 Are the elements silicon, phosphorous and sulfur part of a group or period?
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3/24/11 Getting to know the periodic table…
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3/24/11 “Periodic Law” and the Periodic Table Periodic Law: When elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic number, there is a periodic pattern in their physical and chemical properties.
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L i N a B e M g Group 1A: “Alkali Metals”: à shiny, soft, low melting points à good conductors of heat and electricity à All react rapidly (often violently) with water à Not found in nature in pure state (only found in combination with other elements) Group 2A Alkaline Earth Metals”: à lustrous, shiny, silvery metals à less reactive than Alkali metals à Also not found in pure state
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3/24/11 HALOGENS (Group 7A) à colorful, corrosive nonmetals à highly reactive
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3/24/11 Noble Gases (Group 8A) The noble gases are chemically very stable. They do not readily react with other substances. Number of valence electrons 2 8 8 8 8 8 He Ne Ar Kr Xe Rn Soon, you will hear the term “NOBLE GAS CONFIGURATION” which is the most stable electron configuration – that means that the valence shell is
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“Atomic Theory” All matter is composed of The atoms of a certain element are DIFFERENT from all other atoms (Na atoms are different from Kr atoms) Atoms can be combined with one another in SPECIFIC RATIOS to make COMPOUNDS (H2O, NaCl, CH4,…) Chemical reactions change only the way the atoms are combined in compounds; the atoms themselves are unchanged (Na is
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The Atom :   Various visualizations… Nucleus electro n Note that ALL show the same “subatomic
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This note was uploaded on 03/23/2011 for the course CHEMISTRY 1151 taught by Professor Schoene during the Spring '11 term at Georgia Perimeter.

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Chapter 3Atoms and Elements - Ch. 3: Atoms and Elements...

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