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Week 6 Notes - Week 6 Notes Learning Objectives 1 Identify...

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Week 6 Notes Learning Objectives 1. Identify or recall the different structural components and reproductive strategies present in prokaryotes, eukaryotes, and viruses. 2. Differentiate between prokaryotes, eukaryotes, and viruses using factors such as size or the presence of unique structures. 3. Apply knowledge of the differences between viruses, prokaryotes and eukaryotes to understand why various treatment methods work to specifically kill one class of organisms while remaining harmless to the human cells or other organisms. 4. Understand the evidence supporting the endosymbiotic theory. (That membrane- enclosed organelles found in eukaryotes originated as free-living prokaryotes that were engulfed and then maintained because they established a mutually beneficial symbiotic relationship with their host cell. Metric Review 5. 1 meter (m) = ~3 feet 6. 1 meter (m) = 1000 millimeter (mm) 7. 1 millimeter (mm) = 1000 micrometer (µm) (smallest size distinguished by naked eye) 8. 1 micrometer (µm) = 1000 nanometer (nm) (only seen with light microscope) 9. 1 mm poppy seed = (1000 µm/mm) = 1000 µm Throughout this lesson the story of the RA Becky with a sick student is revealed: listed throughout the notes are various suspects as to what could be causing the girl's symptoms. 1.Coxiella burnetii causes Q-fever. Coxiella are often found in livestock and are excreted in milk, urine, and feces. Infection occurs 2-3 weeks after inhalation of barnyard dust. They are 0.3-0.5 µm gram-negative bacterium ( prokaryotes ) that must invade and reside inside human cells to cause infection. Prokaryotes: 10. Unicellular 11. Reproduce asexually 12. Composition
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Protected interior (cytoplasm) that contains genetic material (one circle of DNA) as well as complexes of protein enzymes to carry out necessary functions of gathering energy, manufacturing proteins (ribosomes), etc… 13. Size 0.2-10 micrometer (µm) 14. Composition Phospholipid membrane containing peptidoglycan (carbohydrates plus amino acids) Differences in cell wall structure and assembly lead to two major categories of bacteria: o Gram positive: Upon Gram staining (exposed to crystal violet dye, washed, then exposed to a counter-dye), retain the crystal violet dye. o Gram negative: Upon Gram staining, do not retain the crystal violet dye. (e.g., Coxiella ). Eukaryotes            Prokaryotes DNA Linear strands within membrane- bound nucleus single circle in “nucleoid region Size 5-100 µm 0.2-10 µm Organization often multicellular, some have cell walls (no peptidoglycan) usually single-celled, some have peptidoglycan cell walls Metabolism usually need oxygen to exist may not need oxygen to exist Organelles membrane bound organelles like mitochondria no organelles, different ribosomes Examples plants, animals, protists, fungi bacteria, archaea
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Eukaryote: Suspect 2  Cryptococcus neoformans 2.5-10 µm encapsulated fungus found in decaying pigeon or chicken droppings.
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