Exam 2 Study Vocab - Chapter 6 Archaeological Methods:...

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Chapter 6 Archaeological Methods: Survey : the physical examination of a geographical region in which promising sites are most likely to be found. Can provide highly sophisticated information about site types, their distribution and their layouts all without a spadeful of earth being turned. Tells us a little about a lot of sites and can be repeated. Excavation: The systematic uncovering of archaeological remains through removal of the deposits of soil and other material covering and accompanying them. A form of destruction and once a site is excavated it’s gone forever Types of archaeological data: Subsistence strategy: different ways that people in different societies go about meeting their basic material survival needs. The basic division is between food collectors or foragers (those who gather, fish, or hunt) and food producers (those who depend on domesticated plants or animals or both). Pastoralists: food producers that herd exclusively Extensive agriculture: use of land as farm plots are moved every few years Intensive agriculture: brings much more land under cultivation at any one time and produces significant crop surpluses Band: the characteristic form of social organization found among foragers. Bands are small, usually no more than 50 people and labor is divided ordinarily on the basis of sex and age. All adults in band societies have roughly equal access to whatever material or social valuables are locally available Tribe: a society that is generally larger than a band, whose members usually farm or herd for a living. Social relations in a tribe are still relatively egalitarian, although there may be a chief who speaks for the group or organizes certain group activities Chiefdom: a form of social organization in which a leader, the chief, and close relatives are set apart from the rest of the society and allowed privileged access to wealth, power, and prestige. State: an economic, political, and ideological entity invented by stratified societies: possesses specialized government institutions to administer services and collect taxes and tributes: monopolizes use of force with armies and police; possesses high level and quality of craft production. Often developed writing Empire: Forms when one state conquers another Ascribed statuses: social positions people are assigned at birth Achieved statuses: social positions people may attain later in life, often as the result of their own (or other peoples) effort
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Chapter 7 1. Domestication- human interference with the reproduction of another species, with the result that specific plants and animals become more useful to people and dependent on them. Occurred independently in 7 different areas of the world between 10 and 4,000 years ago a. View chart on pg. 191 to see where various plants and animals were domesticated 2. Domestication hypothesis a. Braod spectrum foraging- a subsistence strategy based on collecting a wide range of plants and animals by hunting, fishing, and gathering. Based on a
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Exam 2 Study Vocab - Chapter 6 Archaeological Methods:...

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