Exam 3 Study Guide

Exam 3 Study Guide - Chp 12-Economics/Politics 1 Cultural...

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Chp 12-Economics/Politics 1. Cultural Evolution- Changes over time in learned beliefs and behaviors that shape human development and social life. Very abstract as change proceeds in fits and starts. No human society develops or persists in isolation. Unexpected events modify regular processes in unexpected ways 2. Institution- Complex, variety, and enduring forms of cultural practices that organize social life 3. Power- Transformative capacity, the ability to transform a given situation 4. Types of Social Power- a. Interpersonal- ability of one person to impose their will on another person. EX: mother over child, military over troops b. Organization- group that limits the actions other individuals EX: police c. Structural- how you structure social settings themselves, aspects of social life and behavior 5. Ideology- A worldview that justifies the social arrangements under which people live 6. Political Power: a. Coercion- i. Use of force ii. Political activity is a competition between individuals. Often competition is over scarce resources, sometimes in situations where people use coercion b. Coercive Domination- c. Persuasion- i. Use of reasoning, entreaty argument ii. Political activity involved reaching compromise and making accommodations iii. Never absolute iv. Works often in hegemony
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1. Use culture to gain and enforce power and control 2. People desire this culture and so accept domination d. Hegemony- The persuasion of subordinates to accept the ideology of the dominant group by mitual accommodations that nevertheless preserve the rulers privileged position 7. Governmentality- the art governing appropriately to promote the welfare of populations within a state 8. Power in Non-State Societies- a. People corporate in bands, tribes, and chiefdoms b. Why no anarchy? i. Social obligations restrict individual’s self interested behavior ii. Persuade people to work together with mutual obligations and shared cultural values 9. Mode of Production- a specific, historically occurring set of social relations through which labor is deployed to wrest energy from nature by means of tools, skills, organization and knowledge 10. Means of production- the tools, skills, organization, and knowledge used to extract energy from nature 11. Types of capital- a. Financial- money, stocks, bonds b. Infrastructure- roads, buildings, tools, transport c. Natural- d. Human- knowledge, skills, health, labor capacity e. Social- kin, friends, built on relationships with others 12. Importance of Capital in Industrial v. Non industrial societies- a. Industrial: money buys labor. Socio economic gap between bosses and workers. Separation of workers from means of production
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b. Non-industrial: kin based mode of production. Division of labor varies by society (age & gender). Some specialized knowledge and/or craft specialization. Close relationship between workers and means or production 13. Principles of Exchange- a. Markets- the exchange of goods (trade) calculated in terms of a multipurpose
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Exam 3 Study Guide - Chp 12-Economics/Politics 1 Cultural...

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