BIOL 1103 notes Week 9

BIOL 1103 notes Week 9 - BIOL 1103 notes Wednesday March...

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BIOL 1103 notes Wednesday, March 4 th Learning Objectives: Distinguish between a chromosome, DNA, and genes. Describe the jobs of the regulatory and coding regions of genes. Draw a diagram of how RNA is made from DNA during transcription. Explain how a cell knows where a gene begins and ends? Explain the roles of the ribosome, tRNA, and mRNA in translation. Explain how a ribosome know where a protein begins and ends. Distinguish between a codon and an anticodon. If given a fragment of DNA, predict predict RNA(s) that could be produced by transcription Predict the protein that is likely to be made from the RNA Predict effect of a given change in DNA sequence on the protein that a gene would normally produce. Human chromosomes: 50->250 million base pairs Average gene: 3000 base pairs <5% of DNA codes for protein How to find the genes?
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What is a gene? Short stretch of DNA on chromosome Two parts Information in genes used to make proteins Two stages Transcription-find stretch of DNA and convert to RNA Translation- into amino acid sequence Transcription Regulatory region has a binding site for RNA polymerase. The regulatory region contains a nucleotide sequence (promoter) that helps recruit RNA polymerase to the beginning of a gene. The ability of RNA polymerase to bind to this site is regulated by other sequences in the regulatory region and enable gene expression to be turned up or down. A different sequence at the end of the coding region causes the RNA polymerase to release the DNA/RNA ending transcription Promoter marks the beginning of a gene, RNA polymerase can recognize the promoter (which brings in polymerase), polymerase opens up the DNA into two strands and reads one of strands as a template until it gets to the terminator, once it reaches this it falls off: DNA closes back up into original double helix, and you have a strand of mRNA (used to make protein b/c you can’t use DNA directly- you can leave with a copy w/o a problem, but don’t use DNA b/c it’s rare and can’t be replaced) another advantage is you can make additional copies as needed when converted into RNA Transcription Similar to DNA replication, but different Copy only one of the two strands Makes a copy as RNA, not DNA
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Bio Notes – Exam 4 – 3/15/10 A quick review: Translation is the second stage of copying DNA. It converts the information in the RNA into an amino acid sequence. Certain sequences of nitrogenous bases are called codons, which are amino acids. Not all information in a DNA sequence is needed, so it is important to look for the “punctuation.” The start and end codons provide translation with a starting and end point. For the test, we do not need to memorize all the codons, but we will need to be able to understand and use the codon table. Do now that the start of a protein sequence will begin with AUG (Met) and will end with UAA, UAG, or UGA.
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