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Unformatted text preview: Short Answers 1. Josiah –Josiah’s nationalistic and religious reforms began in 629 BCE. He was a good King who took the initiative to remove signs of Assyrian dominion through reformation. In the 18 th year of his reign, the Book of the Torah, a manuscript, was found in the temple that was under renovation. He tore his garments in despair and demanded verification of its contents. Confirmation of the book by the prophetess Huldah led Josiah to perform a ceremony of covenant renewal and brought about religious reformation such as condemning idolatry and promoting centralization of worship. 2. Jeremiah – He is the “weeping prophet” who wrote the books of Jeremiah and Lamentations. He continually prophesied that the day of YHWH would be a day of darkness and gloom instead of victory. God appointed Jeremiah to confront Judah and Jerusalem for the worship of idols and other violations of the covenant, so God can punish them. Because of his warnings, he weakened the morale of the state and was imprisoned. However, he was freed by Nebuchadnezzar’s orders and remained in Judah. I t is important to note that he identified the Message more personally than any other prophet before him. 3. Proverbs – The Book of Proverbs is post-Exilic, a time when wisdom schools flourished. The Book centers on a “love of wisdom” and is referred to as wisdom literature along with other books (Job and Ecclesiastes). I ts four central themes are parental advice to children, relationship to wealth and poverty, self-control, and obedience to God. Proverbs reflects Deuteronomistic theology—that if you are loyal to YHWH, he will bless you. Often, foolishness is compared to wisdom. 4. Esther – Esther was a Jewish woman chosen to be queen of Persia after Persian King Xerxes I banished his first wife for disobedience. A massacre was planned for all the Jews in the Persian Empire and, after Mordecai, her cousin who had raised her, persuaded Esther to help her people, she saved them by telling Xerxes about her own ethnicity. The feast of Purim is established in memory of their deliverance from death. 5. Zerubbabel – Zerubbabel was named the Davidic Messiah by Zachariah in hopes of restoring the Davidic dynasty. During the Second Temple period, Zerubbabel was a Persian Governor who led the return of Jews from Babylonian Exile in the first year of Cyrus the Great’s reign. He laid the foundations for the second temple that was less in glory and honor than the first temple built by Solomon. After this, Zerubbabel vanished from the Bible, and there were no more records of him. This ended the idea of a Davidic state until Maccabeus in 400 BCE. 6. Nebuchadnezzar – He was the crown prince who led the Babylonian army to victory in Palestine in 601 BCE. He returned to Babylon to become king. In 598 BCE , he invades Judah and pillages, taking back to Babylonia the first wave of exiles including Daniel and Ezekiel (Babylonian captivity). The forced exile ended in 538 BCE...
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This note was uploaded on 03/24/2011 for the course RELIGION 201 taught by Professor Wasserman during the Fall '10 term at Rutgers.
- Fall '10