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Lecture 1 Biological Classification and The Tree of Life

Lecture 1 Biological Classification and The Tree of Life -...

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Biological Classification & The Tree of Life A. Biological Classification a. Criteria for Classifying Organisms i. Anatomical 1. Look at how an organism is structured (body type, limbs, etc.) ii. Developmental 1. Look at embryonic development of organism iii. Biochemical 1. Look at the chemicals made up in the organism iv. Genetic (DNA) 1. Look at the genetic make-up of the organism 2. More recent, but most useful now b. Hierarchical system has been used for hundreds of years i. Domain (most general) ii. Kingdom iii. Phylum iv. Class v. Order vi. Family vii. Genus viii.Species (most specific) ix. Dastardly King Philip Can Only Feel Good Sometimes c. Domain i. Three Domains of Life: 1. Archaea a. Prokaryote
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2. Bacteria a. Single celled, simplest organisms, prokaryote 3. Eukarya a. Organisms with complex structures, eukaryote ii. Cells 1. Prokaryote a. Simple organization b. Don’t have organelles c. Organisms are unicellular d. Ancient evolution
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Unformatted text preview: 2. Eukaryote a. Complex organization b. Have organelles c. Organisms can be unicellular or multicellular d. Recent evolution d. Kingdom i. Applied Mostly to the Eukarya Domain ii. 4 Main Kingdoms: 1. Animalia a. Eukaryotic b. Multi-cellular c. Heterotrophic (ingest) d. Mostly move 2. Fungi a. Eukaryotic b. Mostly multi-cellular c. Heterotrophic (absorb) d. Can’t move 3. Plantae a. Eukaryotic b. Multi-cellular c. Autotrophic d. Can’t move 4. Protista a. Eukaryotic b. Mostly uni-cellular c. Autotrophic (feed itself) or Heterotrophic (absorb or ingest) d. Some can move, some can’t move e. Phylum i. Separated by organisms that share a body plan ii. About 36 Animal phyla f. Species i. Two organisms are members of the same species if they can mate to produce fertile offspring ii. Scientific Nomenclature: Genus Species...
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