Biology Final Review

Biology Final Review - Biology Test Exam Review RNA...

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Unformatted text preview: Biology Test Exam Review RNA polymerase binds to what? The promoter What gas makes fruit ripen? Ethylene What two glands connect? Hypothalamus and Anterior Pituitary Action potentials are different from membrane how? Which hormone has seed dormancy? Abscisic Acid Which hormone has seed germination? Cytokinins What hormone prevents seed germination? Abscisic acid Interphase has 12 chromosomes, how many chromosomes in Anaphase? 24 If you have 36 cells in interphase of mitosis, how many daughter cells will there be after cytokinesis? 72 Which hormones are secreted and flow through bloodstream? All?? Action potential: when does it decrease and increase? Closer to an A.P. when Na+ enters (depolarization) Further from an A.P. when K+ exits (hyperpolarization) Propagation A.P. flows down the axon This occurs faster when the axon is myelinated (covered in Schwann cells) Excitable EPSP’s Excitatory Post-synaptic potential Na+ responsible for depolarization Inhibitory IPSP’s Inhibitory Post- synaptic potential K+ responsible for hyperpolarization CNS Brain and spinal cord Rods and cones are sensory transduction Why do we know taste? Different parts of the brain are stimulated 2 plant hormones work together in antagonistic pairs Endocrine cells release hormones through the blood system How does the skeleton control movement? Muscle contractions? Pituitary glands located where? Bottom/Below the brain Nervous system is what part of the body? A/a how many possible gametes? 2 What process is blocked by bacterial operon? Transcription What is least involved in translation? DNA Steroid hormones = Adrenal Glands and Gonads Know everything about action potential Know myosin Know about muscle contractions Know thin and thick filaments (graphs) Thin = actin Thick = myosin Know how to find protons Net Products of glycolysis are? 2 ATP Pyruvic Acid NADH+H+ Net Products of cellular respiration are? CO2 H2O ATP What is the relationship between DNA, chromosomes, and genes? Chromosomes have genes which have DNA Know about target cells Must have the receptor Why do our hands get hot? Because part of the brain gets stimulated How many nucleotides in a codon? 3 What do our cells have that bacterial cells don’t? ER Know process of photosynthesis Calvin-Benson Cycle converts what to make G3P? ATP NADPH+H+ CO2 ATP is produce how in the following? Glycolysis? Substrate Level Citric Acid (Krebs)? Substrate ETC? Oxidative Know characteristics of enzymes. ( It was wrong on test when it said increases activation energy) What makes up nucleotide structure? 5 Carbon Sugar Phosphate Nitrogenous Base pH of 7 means what? Neutral Nucleotide Structure Sugar-phosphate backbone is covalent bonds Hydrogen bonds between bases Unequal sharing of electrons is polar covalent bonds Know how to find genotype and phenotype when doing crosses for genetics Know endocrine and nervous system Posterior/anterior Pituitary Posterior- 2 hormone Anterior- 6 (says the book pg. 987), 7 (says the notes) Know neuron structures Cell Body holds the most organelles Axon’s are the dangly things Dendrites are attached to the cell body Know figure 49.3 page 1066 Know figure 50.23 on page 1103 100 molecules of C6H1206 binded together is a polysaccharide Dark reactions get energy from what? ATP and NADPH+ from the light reactions DNA is the least involved in translation Neurosecretory cells are found in the pituitary gland Pituitary gland-bottom of the brain Calcium ions with troponin pull tropomyosin off the actin receptors, allowing myosin to bind to actin ATP causes myosin heads to break off of actin Calcium ions cause neurotransmitters to release in the synaptic cleft Proteins bind to receptors on the membrane What is secreted by the anterior pituitary? What produces most hormones? Anterior Pituitary K+ 1 gate, Na 2 gates What is the longest part of the neuron? Axon What kind of conduction is caused by myelin sheaths? Saltatory How many capillary beds are in a portal system? 2 Know voltage gated channels Activated when there is a charge differential How many neurons can synapse with each other? Many Dogs smell better than humans because they don’t adapt to smells Somatic cells are from conscious control RNA polymerase binds to the promoter Glycolysis occurs in the cytoplasm What do the hormones released by the hypothalamus directly target? The Anterior Pituitary. Gibberellins support flower development. What accepts light energy? Photosynthetic pigments. Eye diagram: Amacrine cells amplify, Rods and cones are sensory transduction Substrate level phosphorylation occurs everywhere except the ETC. ETC has oxidative level. Chromosomes packed with genes with DNA More sodium outside a cell than normal. Anterior Pituitary contains the most hormones. Pituitary is located in the lower brain. Horizontal cells are involved in the integration of sensory transduction. If something binds to the receptors, but nothing happens, this will decrease the chances of an action potential occurring. The receptors are blocked. Post-synaptic neurons communicate with neurotransmitters by: binding to a receptor. Plant Hormones: pg 827 Human Glands: 987 ...
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