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Unformatted text preview: Human Resource Human Management Management
ELEVENTH EDITION G A R Y D E S S L E R Part 2 | Recruitment and Placement Chapter 5 Employee Testing and Selection The Recruitment and Selection Process
1. Decide what positions to fill through personnel planning Decide what and forecasting. and 2. Build a candidate pool by recruiting internal or external Build candidate recruiting candidates. candidates 3. Have candidates complete application forms and Have application undergo initial screening interviews. screening 4. Use selection tools to identify viable candidates. Use selection identify 5. Decide who to make an offer to, by having the Decide who offer supervisor and others interview the candidates. interview 6–2 Why Careful Selection is Important?
The Importance of Selecting the Right Employees Organizational Performance Costs of Recruiting and Hiring Legal Obligations and Liability 6–3 Why Careful Selection is Important?
• Performance Employees with the right skills will do a better job Employees Employees without these skills will not perform Employees effectively effectively • Cost Costly to recruit and hire employees • Legal obligation Incompetent hiring: nondiscriminatory selection Incompetent procedures and negligent hiring procedures 6–4 Avoiding Negligent Hiring Claims
• Carefully scrutinize information on employment Carefully applications. applications. • Get written authorization for reference checks, and Get check references. check • Save all records and information about the applicant. • Reject applicants for false statements or conviction Reject records for offenses related to the job. records • Balance the applicant’s privacy rights with others’ “need Balance to know.” to • Take immediate disciplinary action if problems arise. 6–5 Selection method
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Application blanks Background investigations/reference checks Employment interviews Employment tests Others 6–6 1. Application blanks
Name: _________________________________ Education/attainment:______________________ Work experience:_________________________ Work skills:______________________________ References:______________________________
6–7 Employment Application 6–8 Developing and Using Application Forms
Uses of Application Information Applicant’s education and experience Applicant’s progress and growth Applicant’s employment stability Applicant’s likelihood of success 6–9 1. Uses of application blanks
• Determine whether minimum qualifications for Determine job are met job • Judge the presence of absence of certain jobrelated attributes • Highlight potential problem areas concerning Highlight the applicant the 6–10 2. Background investigations and reference 2. checks checks
• Primarily used for screening applicants for Primarily positions of trust or for “special duty of care” positions positions • Must avoid violating legal rights of applicants 6–11 2. Background Investigations and 2. Reference Checks
Former Employers Current Supervisors Sources of Information Commercial Credit Rating Companies Written References Social Networking Sites 6–12 2. Background Investigations and 2. Reference Checks Reference
• Investigations and Checks Reference checks Background employment checks Criminal records Driving records Credit checks • Why? To verify factual information provided by applicants. To uncover damaging information.
6–13 FIGURE 5–8 Reference Checking Form Source: Society for Human Resource Management, © 2004. Reproduced with permission of Society for Human Resource Management in the Format Textbook via Copyright Clearance Center. 6–14 2. Background Investigations and Reference 2. Checks Checks
• Useful Include on the application form a Useful statement for applicants to sign explicitly authorizing a background check authorizing Use telephone references if possible Be persistent in obtaining information Use references provided by the candidate as Use a source for other references source Ask open-ended questions to elicit more Ask information from references information
6–15 • • • • 3. Employment interview
• • • • Technical knowledge Self-evaluative information Situational information Behavior description information 6–16 4. Employment test
• • • Mental ability tests Personality tests Work sample and simulation tests 6–17 4. Employment test
Basic testing concepts • Reliability Consistency of scores obtained by the same person Consistency when retested with identical or equivalent tests. when Are test results stable over time? • Validity Indicates whether a test is measuring what it is Indicates supposed to be measuring. supposed Does the test actually measure what it is intended to Does measure? measure? 6–18 FIGURE 5–1 Sample Picture Card from Thematic Apperception Test Source: Reprinted by permission of the publishers from Henry A. Murray, THEMATIC APPERCEPTION TEST, Plate 12F, Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, 1943. 6–19 Types of Validity
Test Validity Criterion Validity Content Validity Face Validity 6–20 Types of validity
• Criterion validity A type of validity based on showing that scores on the test type (predictors) are related to job performance (criterion) (predictors) • Content validity A test that is content valid is one that contains a fair sample of test the tasks and skills actually needed for the job in question the E.g. A typing and computer skills test for a clerk: a E.g. comprehensive sample of actual, observable, on-the-job behaviors is what lends the test its content validity behaviors Demonstrating content validity sounds easier than it is in Demonstrating practice practice The tasks given in the test are really a random sample of the tasks The performed on the job performed The conditions under which the person takes the test resemble the The work situation is not always easy work
6–21 Types of validity
• Face validity What determines perceived test fairness?
A quite test-taking environment, privacy, etc. The obviousness of the link between the test and The performing the job performing 6–22 How to Validate a Test
Steps in Test Validation (demonstrate the test’s criterion validity)
1 2 3 4 5 Analyze the Job: predictors and criteria Choose the Tests: test battery or single test Administer the Tests: concurrent or predictive validation Relate Your Test Scores and Criteria: scores versus actual performance Cross-Validate and Revalidate: repeat Steps 3 and 4 with a different sample 6–23 How to validate a test
Step 1: • Analyze the job Write job descriptions and job specifications Specify the human traits and skills Define criteria for the standards of success
Focus on production-related criteria (quantity, quality, etc) Personnel data (absenteeism, length of service, etc) Judgments of worker performance (e.g. supervisors) 6–24 How to validate a test
Step 2: • Choose the tests Measure the attributes (predictors) important for job Measure success success What tests are available and where do you get What them? them? 6–25 FIGURE 5–2 Examples of Web Sites Offering Information on Tests or Testing Programs • www.hr-guide.com/data/G371.htm Provides general information and sources for all types of employment tests. • http://buros.unl.edu/buros/jsp/search.jsp Provides technical information on all types of employment and nonemployment tests. • www.ets.org/testcoll Provides information on over 20,000 tests. • www.kaplan.com Information from Kaplan test preparation on how various admissions tests work. • www.assessments.biz One of many firms offering employment tests.
6–26 How to validate a test
Step 3: • Administer the test Concurrent validation Administer the selected tests to employees presently on the Administer job and compare their test scores with their current performance performance Administer the test to applicants before you hire them. Then Administer hire these applicants using only existing selection techniques, not the results of the new test. After they have been on the job for some time, measure their performance and compare it to their earlier test scores and Predictive validation 6–27 How to validate a test
Step 4: • Relate your test scores and criteria Significant statistical relationship between scores Significant (the predictor) on the test and job performance (the criterion) using correlation analysis criterion) Expectancy chart is developed to show the Expectancy relationship between test scores and job performance graphically performance 6–28 FIGURE 5–3 Expectancy Chart Note: This expectancy chart shows the relation between scores made on the Minnesota Paper Form Board and rated success of junior draftspersons. Example: Those who score between 37 and 44 have a 55% chance of being rated above average and those scoring between 57 and 64 have a 97% chance.
6–29 How to validate a test
Step 5: • Cross-validate and revalidate Before putting the test into use, you may check it by Before cross-validating by performing steps 3 and 4 on a new sample of employees new 6–30 4. Employment test
Legal privacy issues • Defamation Libeling or slandering of employees or former Libeling employees by an employer. employees • Avoiding Employee Defamation Suits
1. Train supervisors regarding the importance of Train employee confidentiality. employee
2. Adopt a “need to know” policy. 3. Disclose procedures impacting confidentially of Disclose information to employees. information
6–31 4. Employment test
• Cognitive (mental) IQ tests are test of general intellectual abilities • Specific cognitive abilities Specific reasoning, verbal comprehension, etc Also called aptitude tests: measure aptitude for the Also job in question job • Motor and physical abilities Finger dexterity, body coordination, etc. • Personality and interests 6–32 4. Employment test Personality tests: The “Big Five”
Extraversion Conscientiousness Emotional Stability/ Neuroticism Agreeableness Openness to Experience 6–33 FIGURE 5–6 Sample Personality Test Items Source: Elaine Pulakos, Selection Assessment Methods, SHRM Foundation, 2005, p. 9. Reprinted by permission of Society for Human Resource Management via Copyright Clearance Center. 6–34 4. Employment test
Personality tests • Validity evidence mixed • Potential for faking • Possible legal concerns (EEO) 6–35 4. Employment test
Work sample tests • Perform some of actual job duties • Manual skills • Clerical skills • Managerial skills 6–36 4. Employment test
Creating work sample tests • A testing method based on measuring testing performance on actual basic job tasks performance Conduct job analysis Conduct Choose representative sample of tasks Develop scoring procedure Administer test under standardized conditions 6–37 4. Employment tests Work Samples and Simulations
Measuring Work Performance Directly Work Samples Management Assessment Centers Video-Based Situational Testing Miniature Job Training and Evaluation 6–38 4. Employment test
Management assessment centers • A simulation in which management candidates simulation are asked to perform realistic tasks in hypothetical situations and are scored on their performance. It usually involves testing and the use of management games use The in-basket Leaderless group discussion Management games Individual presentations Objective tests interview
6–39 4. Employment test
Video-based situational testing • A situational test situational Responds to situations representative of the job E.g. work sampling, some assessment center tasks, E.g. video simulation of realistic job situations video • Video-based simulation A situational test in which examiners respond to situational video simulations of realistic job situations video Miniature job training and evaluation • Training candidates to perform several of the Training perform job’s tasks, and then evaluating the candidates’ job’s and evaluating performance prior to hire prior
6–40 6. Others
Screening for dysfunctional behavior • Applicant drug abuse • Applicant honesty Polygraph tests Paper-and-pencil honesty tests 6–41 Line managers and employee selection
• • • • • Determine needed competencies Assess job candidates Provide input into selection decisions Make job offers Help ensure validity 6–42 HRM department and employee selection
• Provide technical support • Assist the manager 6–43 ...
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This note was uploaded on 03/21/2011 for the course ACCOUNTING 110 taught by Professor Mcwilliams during the Spring '09 term at San Jose State University .
- Spring '09
- Financial Accounting