Lecture9 - Human Resource Human Management Management 1...

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Unformatted text preview: Human Resource Human Management Management 1 ELEVENTH EDITION G A R Y D E S S L E R Part 3 | Training and Development Chapter 7 Training and Developing Employees Training and development • Successful in-company training should target Successful on orientation, skill improvement, creating a sense of belonging and a sense of unity and common purpose in the organization common 8–2 Purpose of Orientation Orientation Helps New Employees Feel Welcome and At Ease Understand the Organization Know What Is Expected in Work and Behavior Begin the Socialization Process 8–3 The Orientation Process Company Organization and Operations Employee Benefit Information Personnel Policies Employee Orientation Safety Measures and Regulations Daily Routine Facilities Tour 8–4 FIGURE 8–1 New Employee Departmental Orientation Checklist Source: UCSDHealthcare. Used with permission. 8–5 The Training Process • Training The process of teaching new employees the basic The skills they need to perform their jobs. skills • Training’s Strategic Context The firm’s training programs must make sense in The terms of the company’s strategic goals. terms • Performance Management Taking an integrated, goal-oriented approach to Taking assigning, training, assessing, and rewarding employees’ performance. employees’ 8–6 The Training Process (cont’d) The Five-Step Training and Development Process 1 2 3 4 5 Needs analysis Instructional design Validation Implement the program Evaluation 8–7 The Training Process 1. Needs analysis 2. Design of training program • • • Instructional design Training program content: workbooks, exercises, and activities Selection of instruction methods Bugs are worked out of the training program by presenting it Bugs to a small representative audience to Actually training the targeted employee group Management assesses the program’s successes or failures 3. Validation (trial-run) 4. Implement the program • • 5. Evaluation 8–8 Step 1: Analyzing Training Needs Training Needs Analysis Task Analysis: Assessing New Employees’ Training Needs Performance Analysis: Assessing Current Employees’ Training Needs 8–9 Step 1: Analyzing training needs Job analysis: Assessing new employees’ training needs Training needs analysis Performance analysis: Assessing current employees’ training needs Organization’s direction Observable performance discrepancies General treatment needs 8–10 Step 1: Analyzing training needs • Job analysis: assessing new employees’ Job training needs training Identify the component tasks and responsibilities of a Identify job with detailed analysis of the activities or operations necessary to these component tasks operations Produce key elements of training—the particular Produce operations, abilities, skills, and other characteristics which are necessary for effective performance of specific tasks specific 8–11 Step 1: Analyzing training needs • Job analysis: assessing new employees’ Job training needs training Produce training specifications which include the job Produce description and job specification description Job description provides a written statement of the purpose, Job scope, component tasks, duties, and responsibilities of a focal job focal Job specification provides a detailed statement of the Job physical and physiological characteristics where appropriate knowledge and skills which are required by a fully trained job holder job 8–12 Step 1: Assessing Current Employees’ Training Needs Assessment Center Results Performance Appraisals Individual Diaries Attitude Surveys Methods for Identifying Training Needs Job-Related Performance Data Observations Tests Interviews 8–13 Step 2: Training program development • Based on the specific training needs defined Based and specified in the training needs diagnosis sub-system sub-system Specification of training objectives 8–14 Step 2: Training program development • Specification of training objectives • As any training will need to have direction and a As means of objective validation, clearly and simply stated training objectives will need to be designed designed • An effective objective should contain: The desired behavior The conditions under which desired behavior is The carried out carried The criterion of acceptable performance or standards The required required 8–15 Step 2: Training program development Instructional design • Example of a training program for the training of Example trainers trainers Target trainees: trainers involved in the training Target courses on marketing management courses Duration: one training day with six training hours, Duration: starting from 0900 hours to 1700 hours starting Venue: company training center Overall objectives: to equip the target trainees with Overall the specific training knowledge and skill required in the training of marketing executives Content 8–16 Step 2: Training program development Example of a lesson plan: Time 5 min Activity self-introduction by trainer outline the program Visual Aid Nil 5 min transparency transparency showing the day’s main training topics training 8–17 Step 2: Training program development Training methods • On-the-Job Training • Apprenticeship Training • Informal Learning • Job Instruction Training • Lectures • Programmed Learning • Audiovisual Training • Simulated Training (also Vestibule Training) • Computer-Based Training (CBT) • Electronic Performance Support Systems (EPSS) • Distance and Internet-Based Training 8–18 Training Methods (cont’d) • On-the-Job Training (OJT) Having a person learn a job Having by actually doing the job. by • Types of On-the-Job Training Coaching or understudy Job rotation Special assignments • Advantages Inexpensive Learn by doing Immediate feedback 8–19 On-the-Job Training Steps to Help Ensure OJT Success 1 2 3 4 Prepare the Learner Present the Operation Do a Tryout Follow Up 8–20 FIGURE 8–2 The 25 Most Popular Apprenticeships* According to the U.S. Department of Labor apprenticeship database, the occupations listed below had the highest numbers of apprentices in 2001. These findings are approximate because the database includes only about 70% of registered apprenticeship programs—and none of the unregistered ones. • • • • • • • • • • • • • Boilermaker Bricklayer (construction) Carpenter Construction craft laborer Cook (any industry) Cook (hotel and restaurant) Correction officer Electrician Electrician (aircraft) Electrician (maintenance) Electronics mechanic Firefighter Machinist • • • • • • • • • • • • Maintenance mechanic (any industry) Millwright Operating engineer Painter (construction) Pipefitter (construction) Plumber Power plant operator Roofer Sheet-metal worker Structural-steel worker Telecommunications technician Tool and die maker * Listed alphabetically Source: Olivia Crosby, “Apprenticeships,” Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 46, no. 2 (Summer 2002), p. 5. 8–21 Job Instruction Training (JIT) • Consists of a logical sequence of steps and are Consists best taught step-by-step best • Uses a behavioral strategy with a focus on skill Uses development development • Lists all necessary steps in the job and each in Lists its proper sequence its • Lists a corresponding key point alongside each Lists step step • Go to p256 for the example 8–22 Training Methods (cont’d) • Effective Lectures Don’t start out on the wrong foot. Give listeners signals. Be alert to your audience. Maintain eye contact with audience. Make sure everyone in the room can hear. Make Control your hands. Control Talk from notes rather than from a script. Break a long talk into a series of five-minute talks. Practice and rehearse your presentation. 8–23 Programmed Learning Presenting questions, facts, or problems to the learner Providing feedback on the accuracy of answers Allowing the person to respond • Advantages Reduced training time Self-paced learning Immediate feedback Reduced risk of error for learner 8–24 TABLE 8–2 Names of Various Computer-Based Training Techniques Computer-based programmed instruction Computer-based training Computer-managed instruction Intelligent computer-assisted instruction Intelligent tutoring systems Computer simulation lity Advanced form of computer simulation Source: P. Nick Blanchard and James Thacker, Effective Training: Systems, Strategies, and Practices (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson, 2003), p. 144. 8–25 Computer-Based Training (CBT) • Advantages Reduced learning time Cost-effectiveness Instructional consistency • Types of CBT Interactive multimedia training Virtual reality training 8–26 Distance and Internet-Based Training Teletraining Videoconferencing Distance Learning Methods Internet-Based Training E-Learning and Learning Portals 8–27 Step 4: training program execution • Effective training depends crucially on the Effective conduct of the training program conduct • It include three aspects: Selection and training of trainers Selection of trainees The conduct of training 8–28 Step 4: training program execution Selection and training of trainers • Wrong assumption that persons with relevant Wrong knowledge and skills are capable of teaching others knowledge • Effective trainers should have an appreciation of Effective learning processes, social and communication skills, and specific personal characteristics and • It is the management’s responsibility to ensure that all It training personnel would be of the right caliber and posses the necessary skills and knowledge which includes task analysis, developing objectives, structuring training materials, providing lesson plans and actually conducting the training and 8–29 Step 4: training program execution Selection of trainees • Mandatory training Where the program is intended for the total population, Where attendance will be compulsory attendance • Supervisor nomination Where the program is intended as a reward for performance or Where a remedy for performance deviation, attendance will be by selection or nomination selection • Self-application Where the program is taken as a general opportunity for Where improving individual skills or betterment of job or career success, attendance may be determined by means of selfsuccess, application which can either be administered on a competitive application or non-competitive basis or 8–30 Step 4: training program execution Conduct of training • Management should make sure that the training Management program is conducted as it is planned program • All development work is crystallized by the All performance of the trainer who is the bridge between the training material and the trainees between • The conduct of training is a process of The interaction within a social context, often involving multiple relationships between trainer and trainees and • Motivation and facilitation of learning are Motivation important responsibilities of the trainer important 8–31 Evaluating the Training Effort • Designing the Study Time series design Controlled experimentation Controlled • Training Effects to Measure Reaction of trainees to the program Learning that actually took place Behavior that changed on the job Results achieved as a result of the training 8–32 Using a Time Series Graph to Assess a Training Program’s Effects 8–33 FIGURE 8–6 A Sample Training Evaluation Form Source: www.opm.gov/employment_and_benefits/worklife/. 8–34 ...
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This note was uploaded on 03/21/2011 for the course ACCOUNTING 110 taught by Professor Mcwilliams during the Spring '09 term at San Jose State University .

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