World History Chapter 1

World History Chapter 1 - 10,000 years ago, om hunting...

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rom hunting and gathering to agriculture mergence of permanent settlements 10,000 years ago, some human groups began to cultivate plants, domesticate animals, and make pottery vessels for storage. The earliest complex societies arose in the great river valleys of Asia and Africa, around 3100 B.C.E. valley between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers in Mesopotamia along the Nile River in Egypt, somewhat later in the valley of the Indus River in Pakistan, Floodplain of the Yellow River in China. In these arid regions, agriculture depended on irrigation with river water, and centers of political power arose to organize the massive human labor required to dig and maintain channels to carry water to the fields. Kings and priests dominated these early societies. Kings controlled the military forces; priests managed the temples and the wealth of the gods. Within the urban centers—in the midst of palaces, temples, fortification walls, and other monumental buildings—lived administrators, soldiers, priests, merchants, craftsmen, and others with specialized skills. The production of surplus food grown on rural estates by a dependent peasantry sustained the activities of these groups. Professional scribes kept administrative and financial records and preserved their civilization’s religious and scientific knowledge. Over time, certain centers extended their influence and came to dominate broad  expanses of territory.  The rulers of these early empires were motivated 
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primarily by the need to secure access to raw materials, especially tin  and copper, from which to make bronze.  A similar motive accounts for the development of long-distance trade  and diplomatic relations between major powers.  Fueling long-distance trade was the desire for bronze, which had both practical and  symbolic importance.  From bronze, artisans made weapons, tools and utensils, and ritual 
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World History Chapter 1 - 10,000 years ago, om hunting...

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