NTR 109 Carb outline (chapter 2)

NTR 109 Carb outline (chapter 2) - LECTURE 2 Carbohydrates...

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Unformatted text preview: LECTURE 2 Carbohydrates % of Calories 60 % Calories from Carbohydrate-Nutrition Facts Panel -Fd & Nutrition Board - Rx 45-65% 30 % Calories from Fat 10 % Calories from Protein TOP 5 SOURCES-Whitebread-soft drinks-cookies / cakes-sugar/ syrup-potatoes Simple Sugars Monosaccharides (1 sugar) mono:1 , saccarides: sugar Glucose (blood sugar) : primary fuel or energy in plants and animals Fructose(fruit sugar) Galactose (milk sugar) - Less than 10% from simple sugars- No daily value for sugar. Just limit it. Simple Sugars Disaccharides ( mono + mono ) Sucrose Table sugar(cake, chocolate) -> glucose and fluctose Maltose(found in beer) > 2 Glucose Lactose Milk sugar -> glucose + galactose Simple Sugars High fructose corn syrup (cheap sweetening agent( Sugar alcohols : types of simple sugar, provide some calories Simple Sugars Sources of simple sugars Cereals, cakes, soda, juice, pop Naturally in fruit and vegetables ( higher density nutrient food than just sugar, and provide additional nutrients) Complex Carbohydrates Polysaccharides (long chain of glucose) Starch vegetables, grains, beans (digestible after cooking) Fiber unable to digest (roughage) aids in digestion elimination 0 calories Function of Carbohydrates Glucose major energy source for the body- Feeds in brain and CNS (central nerve system), ideal nutrient for body 4 kcal/g complex and simple Fiber 0 kcal/g Source of Glucose Blood Glycogen - type of polysaccharine, manufactured in body Storage form of glucose Stored in LIVER (1/3) and MUSCLE (2/3) **Glucagon is the hormone that freeze up or liberate store glucose (glycogen) from the liver and muscle Carbohydrates Body uses glucose for energy Fill glycogen stores (limited storage) Stored as fat (unlimited storage) Blood Glucose (Above range can cause major problem) Maintained in narrow range 70 - 110 mg/dL High or low levels dangerous -> unconscious **liver release glucose into blood. Blood Glucose Regulation INSULIN : insulin converts glucose to glycogen Hormone made in PANCREAS by the B(Beta)cells Produced when INCREASE glucose levels ( as we are eating) Assist cells in drawing glucose out of blood lowers blood glucose to normal levels Blood Glucose Regulation GLUCAGON Hormone made in pancreas by the A (alpha)cells Produced when decrease glucose levels Stimulates liver to release glucose from glycogen Diabetes- 6 th leading cause of death- 1 in 4 Americans have DM, >60yo-57 million Americans have pre diabetes -2-4x more likely to develop heart disease & stroke-60% of lower-limb amputations are diabetes -leading cause of blindness in 20-74yo 100 billion medical treated diabetes ** diabetes infects small vessels Diabetes Inability to control blood glucose levels Hyperglycemia High blood glucose level Hypoglycemia Low blood glucose level...
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This note was uploaded on 03/22/2011 for the course NTR 101 taught by Professor Chabot during the Spring '11 term at Buffalo State.

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NTR 109 Carb outline (chapter 2) - LECTURE 2 Carbohydrates...

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