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NTR 109 final exam review

NTR 109 final exam review - N TR 109 FINAL EXAM REVIEW...

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NTR 109 FINAL EXAM REVIEW SHEET LIFE CYCLE The first trimester: first 13-14 weeks of pregnancy, rapid increase in cell number and size, nutrition deficiency or toxicity can be harmful to embryo, medication/radiation/trauma also can be harmful to embryo, and half of all pregnancies miscarry during the first trimester The second trimester: Fetus begins to look more like an infant, still susceptible to toxin exposure, preparation for lactation – increase of 2-4 lbs in breast tissue, deposit of fat tissue, nutrition deficiency at this time affects mother’s ability to breastfeed The third trimester: rapid growth of fetus, transfer of fat, calcium, and iron to fetus during the last month, Fetus may deplete mother’s store of IRON if intake is low. LOW Birth Weight (LBW): Infant weighs less than 5.5 lbs, 40% more likely to die by 1 y/o, lower IQ, short stature (developmental delay) Folate: rapid cell production, folate -400~1000 ug/d – increase synthesis of DNA, Red blood cells formation), PREVENTS NEURAL TUBE DEFECTS, Vitamin B 12: increase amount need to assist folate in manufacturing new cells, source: meat, egg, dairy sufficient, vegetarian may need Vitamin B 12 supplements Adequate weight gain during pregnancy: 1 st trimester: 2~4 lbs 2 nd & 3 rd trimester: ~1 lb/ week Substances/Behaviors to avoid: smoking, medicinal drugs, illegal drugs, vitamin/mineral Megadoses, Dieting, Environmental contaminants, caffeine Sudden increased weight gain causes PREECLAMPSIA – mild form, ECLAMPSIA – severe form, signs: high blood pressure, protein in urine, fluid retention-edema, affects heart/liver/ kidney/brain of the fetus, if untreated, eclampsia- convulsions.
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