Unformatted text preview: Lecture 7 Lecture
Food Safety Statistics 0. 76 million illnesses per year in the US 1. 5000 deaths a year 2. ½ of all flu/GI illnesses 3. Us still safest food supply Us Types of Foodborne Illness Types 4. Salmonella 0. Food Sources 0. Rare meats (poultry) 1. Undercooked eggs Undercooked 2. Unpasteurized milk 2. Unpasteurized Pasteurization : kills bacteria 5. Source 1. Human Feces 2. Infected animals Infected Salmonella Salmonella on set : 6-72 hrs *Freshly squeezed juice is not pasteurized Salmonella Salmonella 6. Symptoms Symptoms
3. Diarrhea 3. 4. Vomiting 5. fever 6. chills chills especially bad in ill, old , young 7. Prevention 7. Heat 8. Cook food thoroughly Cook Clostridium Botulism Clostridium 8. Food Sources 9. Foods in airtight containers Salmonella Salmonella 10. low oxygen environment
11. Home canning (boil @end, some ppl avoid this and it increases risk of botulism) increases Clostridium Botulism Size of 1 single gram of salt kill many ppl in 1hr 0. Symptoms 0. Symptoms onset:4-36 hrs, recently upto 72hrs 12. Difficulty swallowing/breathing 12. 13. Nerve damage 14. Respiratory failure 15. Death Death Clostridium Botulism Clostridium 9. Prevention 16. Heat 17. Proper canning methods 18. Avoid broken cans Avoid Giardiasis “beaver fever” Giardiasis 10. Food Sources 19. Contaminated water Contaminated Need filtration system 3. Lakes, streams, etc 3. Lakes, 11. Source Giardiasis Giardiasis 20. Human waste – water supply Human
Giardiasis Giardiasis onset: 5-25 days 12.Symptoms Symptoms 21. Diarrhea 21. 22. Nausea 23. vomiting vomiting 13. Prevention Giardiasis Giardiasis 24. Boil water – 2 mins to kill giardiasis Boil
25. Filtration 25. Filtration 26. Iodide tablets 26. Iodide Trichinella Spirlalis - Trichinosis Trichinella 14. Food Sources 27. Raw or undercooked pork Raw 28. Raw bear meat 28. Raw 15. Source Trichinella Spiralis - Trichinosis Trichinella 29. Parasite (worm)
Trichinella Spiralis - Trichinosis 16.Symptoms onset:24hrs – 15days (even up to1 month) onset:24hrs 30. Abdominal pain 30. 31. Nausea/vomiting Nausea/vomiting 32. Muscle pain (where parasite is borrowed) 32. Muscle Trichinella Spiralis - Trichinosis Trichinella 17. Prevention 33. Proper cooking 4. Heat will kill parasite Heat Listeria Monocytogenes Listeria 18. Food Sources 34. Vegetables Vegetables 35. Soft unpasteurized cheese 35. 5. Brie, feta, blue, queso blanco Brie, -deli meats / hot dogs *pregnant women should stay away from those soft unpstzed cheese And if they consume deli meats/hot dogs they should put it in hot water 19. Source Listeria Monocytogenes Listeria 36. Infected SOIL 37. Infected ANIMALS Infected
Listeria Monocytogenes Listeria 20.Symptoms 20. onset:9-48 hrs, up to 42days 38. Stillbirth 39. Meningitis in newborns – infection of membrane of brain /
spinal cord 40. Blood infection 40. Blood -fatal in infants and prego -fever -nausea, vomiting Listeria Monocytogenes Listeria 21. Prevention 41. Pregnant women 6. Avoid: soft unpasteurized cheeses Avoid: Escherichia Coli 0157:H7 (E. Coli) Escherichia 22. Food Sources 42. Raw / undercooked beef Raw
43. Water supply 43. 44. Fruits/Vegetables (grown in cows) Fruits/Vegetables 45. Unpasteurized milk, juice 45. Unpasteurized E. Coli E. 23. Source 46. Infected cattle 47. Human waste Human E. Coli E. 24.Symptoms 24.Symptoms onset: 12-72 hrs, up to 8days 48. Watery, bloody diarrhea 48. 49. Kidney failure 50. Death Death E. Coli E. 25. Prevention 51. Heat Heat 26. Pasteurization: The treatment of milk with heat to kill certain 26. pathogens, commonly transmitted pathogens, Honey(raw-has spores of botulism in it) Honey(raw-has 27. Botulism 27. Botulism 52. Children < 1 year old : can be deadly, have weak immune 52.
system Eggs Eggs 28. No raw eggs – Caesar salad, eggnog 29. Cook until no longer runny 30.Pasteurized(treated w/heat) egg products
Causes of Foodborne Illness 31. Large scale food production 32.Broad distribution
33. Imports Imports (cali-buff) 34.Preference for “ raw ” meat 34. 35. Mishandling of foods (left out of fridge/freezer) 35. Mishandling 36. ^in number of older adults 36. Don’t practice food safety as well as younger individuals. Weren’t taught about safety Individuals at High Risk Individuals Developing or compromised immune system 37. Pregnancy 37. 38. children 39. elderly elderly 40. Weakened immune system (AIDS) 40. Diabetes increase risk Prevention Prevention 53.Thaw meat ( refrig or under running cool water ) 54. Prevent cross contamination -transfer cooked foods on clear platters 55. Sanitize with mild bleach solution 55. 56. Wash hands for 20 sec in hot water before and after handling food Wash If room temp is higher than 90f, within 1 hr. otherwise viruses multiple twice as much Prevention Prevention 57.Don’t leave food out for: more than 1-2 hrs 57.Don’t 58.Cold food cold: < 41 F : bacteria survive and multiply slowly in
fridge 59.Hot food hot: >135 F 59.Hot
60. When in doubt throw it out 60. 61. Wash fruit and vegetables 62. Cook thoroughly 63.Danger zone: 41- 135F 63.Danger
0 (freezer) bacteria survive but don’t multiply Biotechnology Biotechnology 41. Definition 64. Identifying favorable genetic trait in a plant and transplanting into another into Biotechnology 42. Purpose 65. Increase yields (more $ for farmers ) Increase 66. Disease and pest resistant 66. Disease 67. Similar shape and color 67. 68. Ripen at the same time 69. Increases: phytochemicals (lycopene enhanced tomatoes) Increases:
Biotechnology Biotechnology 43. Concerns 70. Health risks (less vitamins) 71. Allergies (peanut gene in potatoes)-> makes it more
resistant to pests 72. Ethics (fish gene in plants) 72.
73. Resistant bacteria Food Borne Illness 7. Two Types: 7. 0. Foodborne intoxification 0. Bacteria produce toxin that is secreted into food ( moldy bread) 1. Foodborne infection 1. Bacteria invade intestinal wall via toxin contained in organism 2. 76 million affiliated, 5000 deaths FoodBorne Illness 8. Poisons produced by Microorganisms 2. Enterotoxins 3. act on mucous membranes; ieGI tract (bloody stools ,fever) 3. Neurotoxins 4. act on nervous system; ieBotulism 4. Afloxins ( in peanuts, wehat,corn) 5. Poisonous toxins produced by mold Gov’t Agencies Regulating Fd Supply 5. FDA 6. Food & Drug Administration 6. CDC 7. Center for Disease Control 7. EPA 8. Environmental Protection Agency 8. USDA 8. 9. US Department of Agriculture 9. WHO 10. World Health Organization 9. HACCP – list of guideline that identify and help microbial hazard
10. Hazard analysis critical contract(??) point 11. Identifies & corrects potential microbial hazards 12. Manufacturing, distribution, commercial use of fd products All hospitals use HACCP Food Safety Food Safety Food Industry Controls 10. Disease causing bacteria require 3 things: 13. Warmth (41135 degrees in danger) 14. moisture 15. nutrients bc source of food for bacteria Food Safety 11. To defeat bacteria, do these 3 things: 16. Keep HOT food HOT >135 17. Keep COLD food COLD <41 17.
18. Keep kitchen CLEAN *Reheat leftovers thoroughly to 165 degrees* 12.Potatoes inhabitant of nerve impulses inch off) Natural Toxins (occur naturally in fds) 19. Solanine green area above the skin (remove it, cui an 13.Herbs – not in large quaitities > liver failure ,avoid if prego or breast feeding 20. Ma Huang, comfrey, mistletoe, skullcap, germander, squawmint oil 14.Mollusks(raw) 21. Clams, oysters, mussels, scallops: Thiaminase?????? (contaminated marine allergy Pesticides Pesticides - Can be destroyed by heat 15. Chemicals used to control insects, weeds, fungi, rodents 16.Damages – all living cells 17. Harmful to plants, animals, human beings Organic Food 18. Products grown & processed w/o use of synthetic chemicals 19.Organic food vs Conventional food : no difference in nutrient 19.
content. Organics are not 100 % free 20.Qualities of organic food> natural may not look as great No : pesticides, fertilizer, herbicides, fungicides growth hormone for 2-3 yrs Food Additives Food Additives 22. Any substance added to foods agents) used in: 11. production 12. processing 13. treatment 14. packaging 15. transportation 16. storage of food helps limit spoilage, prevent undesirable changes, color, flavor Food Additives 21. GRAS List 23.Including substances (preservation, artificial colors, thickening 24. Generally regarded as safe – do not have to prove safety 25. FDA responsible for proving a substance does not belong on GRAS list 26. ~400 substances 27. Used for a long time, without hazards 22.Sugar Sugar and salt: withdraw water , inhibit mold , fungal growth 23. Salt Antimicrobial Agents Antimicrobial Agents flavor, protect against bacterial growth Increase amounts associated w/ cancer in rats 25. Antioxidants 25. 24.Nitrites > added to meat products to preserve color, enhance 28. Sulfites – prevent oxidation in processed foods . symptoms: hives, wheezing, abdominal pain and cramps 29. BHA & BHT ????? Prevent spoilage in baked foods, snack foods, cereal Artificial Colors/Flavors Artificial Colors/Flavors 26. Artificial Colors 30. Tartrazine – yellow # 5 (makes food look more appealing ) ppl have allergic reaction 27. Artificial Flavors 31. MSG Can be sensitive, have allergic reaction ,chest pain , nauses , heart palpitation, headaches Increased doses to baby mice destroyed brain cells, avoid msg in infants Growth Hormones Growth Hormones 28.BST – given to meat animals 32. Bovire Somatetropin ?????? 33. Produced by genetically engineered bacteria 33. 34. Identical to growth hormone made naturally Growth Hormones 29.BST peptide hormone is: not a steroid hormone 30. 90 % destroyed during pasteurization; 10 % destroyed in digestion o Does not linger 31. If BST survives, NO effect on body Growth Hormones 35. ADVANTAGES 17. More meat, less fat on cattle 18. More milk production (25%) More 19. Cows require less feed 19. 20. ↑ profits
36. DISADVANTAGES 21. Cows suffer: mastitis (infection of utter) 22. Antibiotic treated cow’s milk & meat 23. May be hazardous ( to those allergic to ABT) Growth Hormones Growth Hormones 32. Milk & meat tested for drug residues 37. DESTROYED IF resudes >normal 33.NIH (Nat’l Institute of Health) and FDA
38. support BST is SAFE ! ...
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- Spring '11
- Escherichia coli, Foodborne illness, Trichinosis