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MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO MANAGEMENT 1.2 ORGANISATIONS AND MANAGERS All the products and services required to satisfy the consumer’s and, ultimately, society’s needs are produced and provided by specialised organisations such as hypermarkets, sports clubs, universities, car manufacturers, banks, guest houses, bicycle shops, hospitals, and airlines to mention but a few. People’s lives are influenced in some way or another by the managers of these numerous business organisations. 1.3 THE NATURE OF MANAGEMENT Managers therefore combine, allocate, coordinate, and deploy resources or inputs in such a way that the organisation’s goals are achieved as productively as possible. In doing so, management follows a specific process. A process is a systematic way of doing things. The entails 4 fundamental management functions: - Planning Organizing Leading Controlling THE MANAGEMENT PROCESS COMPRISES PLANNING, ORGANISING, LEADING AND CONTROLLING. A model is a simplification of the real world in order to explain complex relationships in easy-to- understand terms. The fundamental functions of a manager link up in a specific sequence to form a process . Figure 1.2 illustrates the process as a logical sequence of actions. 1.4 A DEFINITION OF MANAGEMENT Management can be defined as the process of planning , organizing , leading , and controlling the resources of the organisation to predetermined stated organisational goals as productively as possible. Planning is the management function that determines the organisation’s vision , mission and goals. It involves identifying ways of reaching the goals and finding the resources needed for the task. Tactical plans are made by functional managers (such as financial, human resources, research and development, marketing, and operations managers) to support the organisation’s long-term plans. Operational plans are made by lower management (often called “ first line ” or supervisory management ”) to plan ahead for short periods such as weekly and monthly schedules. 2/…
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-2- Organising is the second step in the management process. Tasks , roles , and responsibilities have to be defined and policies and procedures established to achieve the goals. Organising involves developing a framework or organisational structure to indicate how and where people and other resources should be deployed to achieve the goals. Leading refers to directing the human resources of the organisation and motivating them in such a way that their actions are aligned with predetermined goals and plans. Leading the organisations means making use of influence and power to motivate employees to achieve organisational goals. Leading can also mean change, which may be necessary to keep the organisation on track. Controlling
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