INTRODUCTION TO MANAGEMENT
ORGANISATIONS AND MANAGERS
All the products and services required to satisfy the consumer’s and, ultimately, society’s needs
are produced and provided by specialised organisations such as hypermarkets, sports clubs,
universities, car manufacturers, banks, guest houses, bicycle shops, hospitals, and airlines to
mention but a few.
People’s lives are influenced in some way or another by the managers of
these numerous business organisations.
THE NATURE OF MANAGEMENT
Managers therefore combine, allocate, coordinate, and deploy resources or inputs in such a way
that the organisation’s goals are achieved as productively as possible.
In doing so, management
follows a specific process.
A process is a systematic way of doing things.
management functions: -
THE MANAGEMENT PROCESS COMPRISES PLANNING, ORGANISING, LEADING AND
is a simplification of the real world in order to explain complex relationships in easy-to-
The fundamental functions of a manager link up in a specific sequence to form a process
illustrates the process as a logical sequence of actions.
A DEFINITION OF MANAGEMENT
can be defined as the process of planning
, and controlling
resources of the organisation to predetermined stated organisational goals as productively as
is the management function
that determines the organisation’s vision
It involves identifying ways of reaching the goals and finding the resources needed for the
Tactical plans are made by functional managers (such as financial, human resources,
research and development, marketing, and operations managers) to support the organisation’s
are made by lower management
(often called “
”) to plan ahead for short periods such as weekly and monthly