BIO TOPIC 11 - Biology 112 Metabolism I - 1 Unit 2...

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Biology 112 Metabolism I - 1 Unit 2 Metabolism Topic 11 – Metabolic Transformations In this section is to explore some of the criteria for the “replicating thing” which was discussed in lecture. We will discuss the necessities to: 1. gather material 2. gather or make parts 3. gather and transform energy These are three things that all cells (and therefore all organisms) must do. We want to describe the basics of the processes that are involved. As usual we will be primarily discussing bacterial and archaeal cells, but will make references to eukaryotes. Some of this will be familiar. Some bacteria and archaea have metabolisms that are highly similar to eukarytic cells. The reason for this is that the metabolisms of eukaryotic cells are primarily due to mitochrondria and, in plants, chloroplasts. These organelles are ancient endosymbionts; that is, they originated from bacteria that became associated with eukaryotic cells and evolved to be part of the cells. There are, however, Bacteria and Archaea whose metabolisms are strikingly different from the metabolisms of eukaryotes. For example, there are bacteria which extract energy by utilizing the atoms in rocks. Some of these organisms live thousands or meters below the surface of the earth and never seen oxygen or light. The variety is very large. This turns out to be useful because it is possible to understand the fundamental processes by seeing what is common between these different organisms. That is the point-of-view that we will take in this section. Look for the commonalities, and the differences will be easy to remember. We will also cover the gathering and generating of energy, and the building of parts. These are two different aspects of metabolism. In some organisms the two are closely linked while in others they are not. The point of exploring this is to make it clear why these differences are logical. In the next section, we will link the metabolisms of Bacteria and Archaea to their environmental impacts. This initially seems a little strange since Bacteria and Archaea are so small. But the characteristics of the biosphere and the planet are highly affected by the metabolisms of organisms. The Earth is a microbial planet.
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Biology 112 Metabolism I - 2 Topic 11 Learning Objectives After reading this material and the related material in the textbook you will be able to: s Describe the process of substrate level phosphorylation. s Describe the process of fermentation and how end product such as acids and ethanol play a role in ATP generation. s Compare the role and properties of the terminal electron acceptors in fermentation and chemiosmosis. s Evaluate the metabolic requirements (nutrients and terminal acceptors) for organisms that are respiring versus organisms that are fermenting. s
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This note was uploaded on 03/22/2011 for the course ECON 102 taught by Professor Hoffman during the Spring '11 term at Virgin Islands.

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BIO TOPIC 11 - Biology 112 Metabolism I - 1 Unit 2...

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