final study - Background of the Study It is very difficult...

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Background of the Study It is very difficult to study such a basic problem as cell division in humans, although some researchers do. It has become increasingly common, however, to use model organisms, organisms that are similar to humans in terms of how their genes work. One organism that is used worldwide by thousands of researchers in the study of cell division is Saccharomyces cerevisiae . It is a species of budding yeast. It is perhaps the most useful yeast owing to its use since ancient times in baking and brewing. It is believed that it was originally isolated from the skins of grapes. It is one of the most intensively studied eukaryotic model organisms in molecular andcell biology, much like Escherichia coli as the model prokaryote. This organism is a single-celled yeast, a fungus, and is the same one that is used to brew beer and make wine and bread. Yeast grows quickly, producing a new generation of cells in about two hours. (Human cells in culture take about 24 hours to produce a new generation). It is easy to manipulate, cheap to maintain, and is nonpathogenic. Yeast have been studied by researchers for nearly 100 years, resulting in innumerable experimental techniques that have been designed for use with this organism. Finally, although yeast does not look anything like a human, it still grows and divides by the processes of mitosis and meiosis and uses most of the same genes to control those processes. Although cancer is a very complex disease, it has recently become clear that many of our very own genes that are supposed to be working in our cells to control cell division (mitosis and meiosis) are responsible for the cancer epidemic. These normal genes are altered or mutated, possibly due to our exposure to such things as tobacco smoke (which contains at least 50 known cancer-causing agents), UV light from the sun (or from the tanning booth), certain preservatives in our foods, and a host of other environmental assaults When these normal genes are mutated, they are no longer able to do their jobs effectively, a problem that can lead to cancer. (American Cancer Society, 2002). The Nerium oleander is an evergreen shrub or small tree in the dogbane family Apocynaceae. It is the only species currently classified in the genus Nerium . It is most commonly known as oleander but has many other names. Oleander is one of the most poisonous of commonly grown garden plants, and can be very toxic if ingested in sufficient quantity. The Oleandrin is a toxic cardiac glycoside found in oleander ( Nerium oleander ). Along with neandrin it is primarily responsible for the toxicity of the sap of oleander. Anti-mycotic activity of the ethanol extracts from Oleander ( Nerium oleander L.) floral parts were screened in vitro against other fungi such as Fusarium solani. (Psychology of Fungi, 2009)
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This note was uploaded on 03/22/2011 for the course BIOLOGY 105 taught by Professor Poswitlupot during the Summer '11 term at Universidad Pontificia de Comillas.

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final study - Background of the Study It is very difficult...

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