lecture9-11

lecture9-11 - Emotion and motivation Emotion emotional...

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Emotion and motivation Emotion and motivation linked by hypothalamus, limbic system, and cerebral cortex emotional neural pathways are complex -voluntary and unconscious responses Fig. 9-15
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Hypothalamus- pleasure Emotion Involuntary Associated with different areas of the brain
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Motivation - internal signals that shape voluntary behaviors - direct behavior towards specific goals survival behaviors: eating/drinking, sex emotional behavior: curiosity, anger Motivation states = drives - three properties in common 1. Create increased state of CNS arousal or alertness 2. Create goal-oriented behavior 3. Capable of coordinating disparate behaviors to achieve that goal
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Motivation - Motivated behavior work in parallel with autonomic and endocrine responses A single stimulus triggers a motivated behavior and a homeostatic endocrine response motivated behavior stops upon reaching satiety e.g. eating salty foods body osmolarity hypothalamus Thirst center Endocrine center Homeostatic Control Homeostatic Control
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Pleasure is motivational state that can cause addictive behaviors Role of dopamine: reward pathway -cocaine and other addictive drugs enhance the effectiveness of dopamine Scientists have found that dopamine release is increased within the reward pathway of rats. So, since more dopamine is present in the synaptic space, it binds to more dopamine receptors and activates the reward pathway.
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Mental disorders – defects in limbic-system NT Schizophrenia – excess dopamine Depression – serotonin – Prozac Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI)
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Learning and memory Learning and memory two aspects of cognitive ability showing plasticity Learning : acquisition of knowledge about surrounding world can be internalized often accompanied by behavioral changes
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2. Nonassociative : - imitative behaviors like language learning, includes: (I) Habituation - decreased response to repeated stimulus (II) Sensitization - enhanced response 2 broad types of learning: 1. Associative : two stimuli associated with each other Pavlov’s food/bell experiment associate stimulus with given behavior shock treatments
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Memory: Hippocampus = important structure in learning and memory Anterograde amnesia: inability to remember newly acquired information Multiple levels of memory storage: - short-term memory - working memory - consolidation - long-term memory
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Long-term memory: 2 types 1. Reflexive (implicit) memory : -automatic - acquired slowly through repetition - motor skills, procedures and rules 2. Declarative (explicit) memory : - requires conscious attention - depends on higher-level cognitive skills - knowledge reported or described verbally
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Memory traces: pathways that store memory throughout the cerebral cortex - identified using non-invasive techniques - PET scan and MRI - declarative memories - temporal lobe - reflexive memories - amygdala and cerebellum - some memory components stored in specific sensory cortices PET scan MRI
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Neurotransmitters and neuromodulators: Chemical communication Receptors on the target cells Variety of possible signals
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This note was uploaded on 03/22/2011 for the course BIOL 373 taught by Professor Vijayan during the Winter '10 term at Waterloo.

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lecture9-11 - Emotion and motivation Emotion emotional...

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