NS TEST 2 - (Na,Cl,Mg,Ca,K,andSO4 o Sodium o Chlorine o...

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1 Chemical oceanography review sheet. Know the major salts of seawater (Na, Cl, Mg, Ca, K, and SO 4 ). o Sodium o Chlorine o Magnesium o Calcium o Potassium o Sulfate Periodic table o All elements in  columns  react in the same fashion o Elements on  left side  are electron donors o Elements on  right side  are electron acceptors o The last column, column 8, are the  inert  elements Mass of atom found in the nucleus as either protons or neutrons o For water: hydrogen – positive end; oxygen – negative end Electron sharing or exchange responsible for forming compounds from individual  elements. Water molecule is  polar ; i.e., it has a positive and negative side. Polarity of water is responsible for  hydrogen bonding  (what is H bonding?)  Which is responsible for giving water a “structure”. o Hydrogen bonding : for water, when the hydrogen positive end in one  molecule is attracted to the oxygen negative atom of an adjacent water  molecule, hydrogen bonding forms; weaker bond (5-10% weaker than  covalent) o Covalent bond : when elements are attracted to each other (Hydrogen  and oxygen) strong bond Water’s  maximum density  occurs at 4 degrees C. (What is the importance of  this fact?). o Important consequences in its role in the  ecosystem  of Earth. Water at a  temperature of 4  ° C will always accumulate at the bottom of fresh water  lakes, irrespective of the temperature in the atmosphere. Since water and  ice are poor conductors of heat (good insulators) it is unlikely that  sufficiently deep lakes will freeze completely, unless stirred by strong  currents that mix cooler and warmer water and accelerate the cooling. In  warming weather, chunks of ice float, rather than sink to the bottom where 
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they might melt extremely slowly. These phenomena thus may help to  preserve aquatic life. o Figure 6.3 in book explains it Heat is being removed from water placed in a freezer. Starts at  room temperature; density increases as the temperature drops.  Density slows as it gets closer to 3.98˚C, where it will stop. As the  water continues to cool, the framework of hydrogen bonds  becomes more rigid, which causes the liquid to expand slightly  between the molecules are held slightly further apart. Therefore  less dense.  The  addition of salt  to water alters its properties: o Raises boiling point. o Lowers freezing point.
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