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Test 1 - Chapter 2: Beginnings of the universe, earth, and...

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Chapter 2: Beginnings of the universe, earth, and life Big bang theory and planet condensation: Earth condensed from a cloud of dust and gas enriched by the recycled remnants of exploding stars Why life started in oceans Water has abilities to retain heat, moderate temp. , dissolve many chemicals, and suspend nutrients and waste. Miller-Urey Experiment an experiment that simulated hypothetical conditions present on the early Earth and tested for the occurrence of chemical evolution. Specifically, the experiment tested Oparin and Haldane’s hypothesis that conditions on the primitive Earth favored chemical reactions that synthesized organic compounds from inorganic precursors. Considered to be the classic experiment on the origin of life, it was conducted in 1953 by Stanley L. Miller and Harold C. Urey at the University of Chicago Layers of the earth Crust: thin relatively light weight outermost layer Oceanic: mostly basalt Continental: Granite Mantle: Layer beneath crust Mostly Silicon and oxygen, w/ iron and magnesium Core: Inner most of Earth Mainly Iron and nickel 6,600º C (12,000 F) Types of rock Igneous: rock formed under conditions of intense heat Metamorphic: rock that has been altered by heat and/or pressure Sedimentary: Any rock from sediments Differences in Atmosphere Early: rich in carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and water vapor with traces of ammonia and methane. Today: mostly nitrogen and oxygen; brought on by carbon dioxide dissolving in seawater to form carbonic acid, then combining with crustal rocks Ages Universe: 14 Billion Years Earth: 4.7 Billion Years First life forms: 3.6 Billion Years Time between Earth forming and First life forms is called the period of chemical evolution
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First Organisms Most likely deep below the layers of surface ice, on clays or pyrite crystals at cool mineral-rich seeps on the ocean floor Chapter 3: Earth Structure and Plate Tectonics Structure of the Earth Lithosphere: Earth’s cool, rigid, outer layer 100-200 km thick Asthenosphere: hot, partially melted, slowly floating layer of upper mantle below
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Test 1 - Chapter 2: Beginnings of the universe, earth, and...

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