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Blake Lecture 9-17-08 - Blake Chemistry 1307 Topics of the...

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Blake 9-17-08 Chemistry 1307 Topics of the Day Acid/Base Precipitation Acids and Bases What is the definition of an acid? 1. Bronstead/Lowery – Something that donates an H + What is the definition of a base? 1. Something that receives an H + Q1: What are the products of the reaction of HCl and NH 3 ? 1. NCl 2 + H 2 O 2. NH 4 + Cl 3. 3H 2 + NCl 3 4. NH 4 + + Cl - - ANSWER Strong Acids Strong acids, when placed in water, always give up their H + You must memorize the 7 common strong acids 1. HCl, HBr, HI, H 2 SO 4 , HNO 3 , HClO 3 , HClO 4 This means that they anion from the strong acid has very little affinity for H + Example strong acid: HCl HCl (acid) = H + + Cl - (conjugate base) For strong acids the “conjugate base” “never” acts as a base. Weak Acids Weak acids donate a H + ion to water, but only to a small extent Any combination of H + and a stable anion is likely to be an acid. HNO 2 = H + + NO 2 - (conjugate base) Q2: Which is not an acid? 1. HOCl 2. CH 4 - ANSWER 3. H 3 PO 4 4. CH 3 COOH 5. They are all acids Bases Almost any anion is a bases
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1. Negative ions attract positive ions 2. X - + H + = HX 3. Anions that are not bases: Cl
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