notes_Chapter_2 - Chapter 2 Chapter Atoms, Molecules, and...

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Chapter 2 Chapter 2 Atoms, Molecules, and Atoms, Molecules, and Ions Ions
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Chapter #2 – Atoms, Molecules and Ions 2.1 The Early History of Chemistry 2.2 Fundamental Chemical laws 2.3 Dalton’s Atomic Theory 2.4 Cannizzaro’s Interpretation 2.5 Early experiments to Characterize the Atom 2.6 The Modern View of Atomic Structure: An Introduction 2.7 Molecules and Ions 2.8 An Introduction to the Periodic Table 2.9 Naming Simple Compounds
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Computer simulation of the interior view of a twisted nanotube.
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Priestley Medal Source: Roald Hoffman, Cornell University
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Laws of Mass Conservation & Definite Proportions (Composition) Law of Mass Conservation: The total mass of substances does not change during a chemical reaction. Law of Definite ( or constant ) Composition: No matter what its source, a particular chemical compound is composed of the same elements in the same parts (fractions) by mass.
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Figure 2.2: John Dalton Source: Manchester Literary & Philosophical Society
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Mass of Oxygen that Combines with 1.00g of Carbon Compound #1 1.33g Compound #2 2.66g
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Law of Multiple Proportions If elements A and B react to form two compounds, the different masses of B that combine with a fixed mass of A can be expressed as a ratio of small whole numbers: Nitrogen Oxide I : 46.68% Nitrogen and 53.32% Oxygen Nitrogen Oxide II : 30.45% Nitrogen and 69.55% Oxygen g O /g N = 1.142 & 2.284 2.284 2 1.142 1 =
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Mass of Nitrogen that Combines with 1.00g of Oxygen Compound #1 1.750 g Compound #2 0.8750 g Compound #3 0.4375 g I 1.750 2 Cpd #1 N 2 O NO N 4 O 2 II 0.8750 1 II 0.8750 2 Cpd #2 NO or NO 2 or N 2 O 2 III 0.4375 1 I 1.750 4 Cpd #3 NO 2 NO 4 N 2 O 4 III 0.4375 1 = = = = = =
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Dalton’s Atomic Theory Postulates: 1. Each element is made up of tiny particles called atoms. 2. The atoms of a given element are identical; the atoms of different elements are different in some fundamental way or ways. 3. Chemical compounds are formed when atoms combine with each other. A given compound always has the same relative numbers and types of atoms. 4. Chemical reactions involve reorganization of the atoms – changes in the way they are bound together. The atoms themselves are not changed in a chemical reaction.
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Figure 2.3 (P19): Combining gases on a Molecular Level
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Avogadro’s Hypothesis At the same temperature and Pressure, equal volumes of different gases contain the same number of particles (Molecules).
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Stanislao Cannizzaro Source: Corbis
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Cannizzaro’s Relative Atomic(Molecular) Masses of Carbon and Hydrogen Compound Relative Percent Carbon Relative mass of Molecular Mass by Mass Carbon Present Methane 16 75 12 Ethane 30 80 24 Propane 44 82 36 Butane 58 83 48 Carbon Dioxide 44 27 12 Compound Relative Percent Hydrogen Relative mass of Molecular Mass by Mass Hydrogen Present Methane 16 25 4 Ethane 30 20 6 Propane 44 18 8 Butane 58 17 10
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Comparison of Several of Berzelius’s Atomic Masses with Current Values
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notes_Chapter_2 - Chapter 2 Chapter Atoms, Molecules, and...

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