notes_Chapter_4 - Chapter 4 Chapter 4 Types of Chemical...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 4 Chapter 4 Types of Chemical Types of Chemical Reactions and Solution Reactions and Solution Stoichiometry Stoichiometry Chapter 4: Types of Chemical Reactions and Solution Stoichiometry 4.1 Water, the Common Solvent 4.2 The Nature of Aqueous Solutions: Strong and Weak Electrolytes 4.3 The Composition of Solutions 4.4 Types of Chemical Reactions 4.5 Precipitation Reactions 4.6 Describing Reactions in Solution 4.7 Selective Precipitation 4.8 Stoichiometry of Precipitation Reactions 4.9 Acid-Base Reactions 4.10 Oxidation-Reduction Reactions 4.11 Balancing Oxidation-Reduction Equations 4.12 Simple Oxidation-Reduction Titrations Figure 4.1: A space-filling model of the water molecule. The Water molecule has two sets of electrons and can hydrogen bond with a total of four other water molecules. H H 105 .. .. When Water freezes, it sets up a structure with Hexagons formed by water molecules hydrogen bonding with other water molecules. These hexagons have space inside , and make the solid form of water less dense than the liquid form. Because of this, ice floats on liquid water. Water is unique in this regard, as in all other the solid form is more dense than the liquid form. This hydrogen bonding is also very important in Biomolecules such as DNA and Proteins. If one looks at the boiling points of the hydrides of many elements, water, ammonia, and hydrogen fluoride have uniquely High boiling points. For example water is projected to have a Boiling point of only about -80 o C in stead of 100 o C! Figure 4.2: Polar water molecules interact with the positive and negative ions of a salt, assisting with the dissolving process. Figure 4.3(a) The ethanol molecule contains a polar O-H bond similar to those in the water molecule. (b) The polar water molecule interacts strongly with the polar O-H bond in ethanol. The Role of Water as a Solvent: The solubility of Ionic Compounds Electrical conductivity - The flow of electrical current in a solution is a measure of the solubility of ionic compounds or a measurement of the presence of ions in solution. Electrolyte - A substance that conducts a current when dissolved in water. Soluble ionic compound dissociate completely and may conduct a large current, and are called Strong Electrolytes. NaCl (s) + H 2 O (l) Na + (aq) + Cl- (aq) When Sodium Chloride dissolves into water the ions become solvated , and are surrounded by water molecules. These ions are called “ aqueous and are free to move through out the solution, and are conducting electricity, or helping electrons to move through out the solution Electrical Conductivity of Ionic Solutions Figure 4.4: Electrical Conductivity Figure 4.5: HCL (aq) is completely ionized. Carbohydrates Molecules that contain carbon and water! C x H 2y O y CH 2 OH C C C C C C C C C CH 2 OH CH 2 OH O O O H H H H H H H H OH OH OH OH HO Sucrose C 12 H 22 O 11 , C 12 (H 2 O) 11 a disaccharide Hydrogen-Bonding of Sucrose in Water O-H CH 2 H-O H-C O H CH 2 O H H-O-C C C H H C C C O...
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This note was uploaded on 03/22/2011 for the course CHEM 142 taught by Professor Zoller,williamh during the Spring '07 term at University of Washington.

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notes_Chapter_4 - Chapter 4 Chapter 4 Types of Chemical...

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