notes_Chapter_5 - Chapter 5 Chapter 5 Gases Gases Chapter...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 5 Chapter 5 Gases Gases Chapter 5: Gases 5.1 Early Experiments 5.2 The gas laws of Boyle, Charles, and Avogadro 5.3 The Ideal Gas Law 5.4 Gas Stiochiometry 5.5 Daltons Law of Partial Pressures 5.6 The Kinetic molecular Theory of Gases 5.7 Effusion and Diffusion 5.8 Collisions of Gas Particles with the Container Walls 5.9 Intermolecular Collisions 5.10 Real Gases 5.11 Chemistry in the Atmosphere Hurricanes, such as this one off the coast of Florida, are evidence of the powerful forces present in the earth's atmosphere. Important Characteristics of Gases 1) Gases are highly compressible An external force compresses the gas sample and decreases its volume, removing the external force allows the gas volume to increase. 2) Gases are thermally expandable When a gas sample is heated, its volume increases, and when it is cooled its volume decreases. 3) Gases have low viscosity Gases flow much easier than liquids or solids. 4) Most Gases have low densities Gas densities are on the order of grams per liter whereas liquids and solids are grams per cubic cm, 1000 times greater. 5) Gases are infinitely miscible Gases mix in any proportion such as in air, a mixture of many gases. Helium He 4.0 Neon Ne 20.2 Argon Ar 39.9 Hydrogen H 2 2.0 Nitrogen N 2 28.0 Nitrogen Monoxide NO 30.0 Oxygen O 2 32.0 Hydrogen Chloride HCL 36.5 Ozone O 3 48.0 Ammonia NH 3 17.0 Substances that are Gases under Normal Conditions Substance Formula MM(g/mol) Some Important Industrial Gases Name - Formula Origin and use Methane (CH 4 ) Natural deposits; domestic fuel Ammonia (NH 3 ) From N 2 + H 2 ; fertilizers, explosives Chlorine (Cl 2 ) Electrolysis of seawater; bleaching and disinfecting Oxygen (O 2 ) Liquified air; steelmaking Ethylene (C 2 H 4 ) High-temperature decomposition of natural gas; plastics Pressure of the Atmosphere Called Atmospheric pressure, or the force exerted upon us by the atmosphere above us. A measure of the weight of the atmosphere pressing down upon us. Measured using a Barometer! - A device that can weigh the atmosphere above us! Pressure = Force Area Figure 5.1: A torricellian barometer. Construct a Barometer using Water! Density of water = 1.00 g/cm 3 Density of Mercury = 13.6 g/cm 3 Height of water column = H w H w = Height of Hg x Density of Mercury H w = 760 mm Hg x 13.6/1.00 = 1.03 x 10 4 mm H w = 10.3 m = __________ ft Density of Water Height Water Height Mercury Density Mercury Density Water = Common Units of Pressure Unit Atmospheric Pressure Scientific Field Used Pascal (Pa); 1.01325 x 10 5 Pa SI unit; physics, kilopascal (kPa) 101.325 kPa chemistry Atmosphere (atm) 1 atm Chemistry Millimeters of mercury 760 mmHg Chemistry, medicine (mmHg) biology Torr 760 torr Chemistry Pounds per square inch 14.7 lb/in 2 Engineering (psl or lb/in 2 ) Bar 1.01325 bar Meteorology, chemistry Converting Units of Pressure Problem: A chemist collects a sample of Carbon dioxide from the...
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This note was uploaded on 03/22/2011 for the course CHEM 142 taught by Professor Zoller,williamh during the Spring '07 term at University of Washington.

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notes_Chapter_5 - Chapter 5 Chapter 5 Gases Gases Chapter...

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