notes_Chapter_20 - Chapter 2O Chapter The Nucleus: The A...

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Chapter 2O Chapter 2O The Nucleus: The Nucleus: A Chemist’s View A Chemist’s View
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Chapter 20: The Nucleus: A Chemists View 21.1 Nuclear Stability and Radioactive Decay 21.2 The Kinetics of radioactive Decay 21.3 Nuclear Transformations 21.4 Detection and Uses of Radioactivity 21.5 Thermodynamic Stability 21.6 Nuclear Fission and Nuclear Fusion 21.7 Effects of Radiation
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Subatomic particle tracks in a bubble charger at CERN, the European particle physics laboratory in Geneva, Switzerland. Source: CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
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Figure 21.1: Known nuclides
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DISTRIBUTION OF STABLE NUCLIDES Protons Neutrons Stable Nuclides % Even Even 168 60.2 Even Odd 57 20.4 Odd Even 50 17.9 Odd Odd 4 1.4 279 99.9% Total = (like table 21.1 , P 980)
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PROPERTIES OF FUNDAMENTAL PARTICLES Particle Symbol Charge Mass (x10 -19 Coulombs) (x10 -27 kg) Proton P +1.60218 1.672623 Neutron N 0 1.674929 Electron e -1.60218 0.0005486
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NUCLEAR STABILITY Modes of Radioactive Decay • Alpha Decay - Heavy Isotopes - 4 2 He +2 - α Beta Decay - Neutron Rich Isotopes - e - - β - Positron Emission -Proton Rich Isotopes - β + Electron Capture - Proton Rich Isotopes x - rays Gamma-ray emission( γ 29 - Decay of nuclear excited states
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Comparison of Chemical and Nuclear Reactions Chemical Reactions Nuclear Reactions 1. One substance is converted to 1. Atoms of one element typically another,but atoms never change change into atoms of another. identity. 2. Orbital electrons are involved as 2. Protons, neutrons, and other bonds break and form; nuclear particles are involved; orbital particles do not take part. electrons take part. 3. Reactions are accompanied by 3.Reactions are accompanied by relatively small changes in energy relatively large changes in and no measurable changes in mass. energy and often measurable changes in mass. 4. Reaction rates are influenced by 4. Reaction rates are affected by temperature, concentration, number of nuclei, but not by catalysts, and the nature of the temperature, catalysts, or the chemical substance. nature of the chemical substance.
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Emission and Absorption of Light by Atoms Nucleus of atom Electron Light i g h t Light Absorption by an atom moves an electron to a higher energy level. Light Light Emission occurs when an electron drops from a higher energy level to a lower one.
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Absorption and Emission of Light by The Nucleus Excited state Ground state Protons and Neutrons in the nucleus are moved up to excited states by the absorption of large amounts of energy, and they move from excited states back to the ground states by the emission of large amounts of energy! This energy is normally 10 6 times larger than the energy emitted by electron transfers around atoms, and is in the Gamma ray region of the electromagnetic spectrum.
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Figure 12.1: Electromagnetic radiation has oscillating electric (E) and magnetic (H) fields in planes perpendicular to each other and to the direction of propagation.
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Figure 12.2: The nature of waves
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Figure 12.3: Classification of electromagnetic radiation
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Figure 21.7: Schematic representation of a Geiger-Muller counter
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Alpha Decay -Heavy Elements 238 U 234 Th + α + E T
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This note was uploaded on 03/22/2011 for the course CHEM 142 taught by Professor Zoller,williamh during the Spring '07 term at University of Washington.

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notes_Chapter_20 - Chapter 2O Chapter The Nucleus: The A...

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