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Unformatted text preview: New Physics: Sae Mulli (The Korean Physical Society), Volume 61, Number 2, 2011¸ 2, pp. 157∼164 4 Z DOI: 10.3938/NPSM.61.157 _[ ¾Žº ìSW 7T$-T~©z çË À 670-nm Nd:GdVO4 /LBO È ¥ Ä ìœ 7[ý Òc R Xt _T$8 ŽX —V Þl ¤Ë @; ç8 Ò6? ‘Þ ™8 çÚ _)] · ¯Â · ƒ # · ¦] · T„‡ Ò š »; ¡ K¸B/<§ <Ò ¨ Fš/õ@†“ ƒõ†Â, ½p 730-701 N Æ Æ (2010¸ 11 5{ ~6, 2011¸ 1 17{ >F S&)  4  Χ  Z 9 ã 4   Z 9  Xñ ‰ U ¸¼ Ys$ sš×(LD)– é€ *i  1.34 µm-Nd:GdVO4 Ys$\ ½$ “, LBO (Lithium triÐ ß 3ç –  H U ¨í¦ ¦ borate, LiB3 O5 ) q‚+ &` s6ô ? /”l Å Ã C\ : # 670 nm-Nd:GdVO4 /LBO þ ñ   /Ò B Òº   ŸŒ A  ¦ xÇ N ¦x o h U 1¦ lŒ £í ¸i ” B ¨¸f B  &Ò Ys$\ µ”rv“ 1 :$` › %. f‚ /”l ½›\" /”l Us 88 mm, * ¦ Ï x• ¤ ¦   N N ´  3 ¦ ç 4 i اs 19 W, LBO_ “• 28 ◦ C{ M 8&ô 670 nm &Ò Ys$ ا“ þ@ 1.29 Ws%“,  :¸ r  9 : £ñ ¤ Ç o h U 4É j/ ¦r 3¦  : 8 òÉ sM F ¨ ´Ö“ 6.8 %s. ا 1_ rms °“ 2.4 %– 8&÷%. V-+ ]j /”l ½ g Š ¦r  4 l ¦ x ¯r úÉ Ð £ñ&3 ¤  þ XË B ¨ A µ N ¸f B ú ›\" /”l 8Us 173 mm, *i اs 17.5 W, LBO_ “• 29 ◦ C{ M 670 nm &Ò Y N x´  ¦ 3ç 4  :¸ r  9: o h U  4É j/ s$ ا“ þ@ 0.6 Ws%“, sM F ¨ ´Ö“ 2.9 %, ا 1_ rms °“ 1.16 %– 8& ¦r 3¦ :_ 8 òÉ  g Š ¦r ¦ x 4 l ¯r úÉ Ð £ñ ¤ & ”þ B Œ 4 8 òÉ úß –ñíÉ ºº< X&3 # ” ÷3. f‚+ /”\ q # اõ ¨ ´Ö“ ±të ß&$“ ÄÆs S“÷%. ô¼ f‚ % A N ¦ Š ¦r  – î r Ê ‰  Ç  N B” ¨¸f /l ½›\" 670 nm Ys$_ Ø4s 0.6 W{ M c_ | à M2 ü c µíy“ yy 2.79ü U  ¦§  9 : ” 9 º   < ” 1ßŒÉ ŒŒ  ϖ•r •• < 12.8 mradܖ  z. ¼Ð Œ ¤ ˜ þ”Q Ùd#: 1.34 µm-Nd:GdVO4 Ys$, 670 nm-Nd:GdVO4 /LBO &Ò Ys$, \EÝ, Å Ã C U o h U P$¼ Òº  ™ Operational Characteristics of a Laser-diode-pumped 670-nm Nd:GdVO4 /LBO Red Laser Sung-Wug Byen · Han-Tae Choo∗ · Cha-Gon Park · Gyu-Ug Kim · Sang-Ho Lee School of Natural Science, Kumoh National Instituted of Technology, Kumi 730-701 (Received 5 November 2010 : accepted 17 January 2011) We have investigated the operational characteristics of a laser-diode-end pumped 1.34-µm Nd:GdVO4 laser and its intracavity frequency-doubled 670-nm red laser by inserting a LBO (lithium triborate, LiB3 O5 ) nonlinear crystal into either a linear or a V-type folded cavity. When the cavity length of the linear cavity was 88 mm and the temperature of the LBO was kept at 28 ◦ C for an incident pump power of 19 W, we obtained a 670-nm laser with a maximum output power of 1.29 W, which resulted in an optical efficiency of 6.8 %. The fluctuation (rms) of the average output was measured to be 2.4 %. Also, when the cavity length of the V-type folded cavity was 173 mm and the temperature of the LBO was kept at 29 ◦ C for an incident pump power of 17.5 W, we obtained a 670-nm laser with a maximum output power of 1.29 W, which resulted in an optical efficiency of 2.9 %. The fluctuation (rms) of the average output was measured to be 1.16 %. Although the laser output power and the conversion efficiency of the V-type folded cavity are lower than those of the linear cavity, the power stability of the V-type folded cavity is found to be better than that of -157- -158- ÇGt Æ Dü<r hü ô²Óo†t “DÓo”, Volume 61, Number 2, 2011¸ 2 t 4 Z the linear cavity. Also, the beam quality parameter M2 and the beam divergence angle of a 0.6-W, 670-nm red laser were measured to be 2.79 and 12.8 mrad respectively, for the linear cavity. PACS numbers: 42.55.P, 42.65.K, 42.70.M Keywords: 1.34-µm Nd:GdVO4 laser, 670-nm Nd:GdVO4 /LBO red laser, Thermal forcal lens, Frequency doubling I. " e Ø ]   ¸ . ¢ô Nd:GdVO4 &_ <001>õ <100>~¾\  Ç  ñ  ӆ ½Ó  r „ É P¸¸ ŒŒ  \•• yy 11.4 W/mK x 10.1 W/mK s H •• 9  9 [19], 1.34 µm\"_ ĕ ~Ø é€&(1.8 × 10−19 f »¸ ½ ßh Ó¦ – cm2 )“ Nd:YAG_ ĕ ~Ø é€&(0.7 × 10−19 cm2 )˜ r É  »¸ ½ ßh Ó¦ – Ð  ¼ß  ßtë Nd:YVO4 &(2.8 × 10−19 cm2 )˜ H –  ñ Ð H •– • ß Œ €ç  [20–22]. Õ Nd:GdVO4 &õ q“ ªQ  ñ § Œ # Nd:YVO4 &_ \„•• l Më “ا  ñ P¸¸  • Œ :\ ¦4 H ¦ UÐ Ys$– Nd:GdVO4 &s Äo  [23]. " H  ñ » f Nd:GdVO4 &“ “ا 1.34 µm Ys$ µ”\ ´õ  r ¦ ñÉ ¦4 U 1 ò Ï  h &s. Nd:GdVO4 ` s6ô Ys$_ 1” Ü– ¦ xÇ    U Ï ©¼Ð µ œ H   0.913 µm(4 F3/2 →4 I3/2 ), 1.06 µm(4 F3/2 →4 I11/2 ), 1.34 µm(4 F3/2 →4 I13/2 ) eÜ9 Õ×\" 1.06 µm  ”¼ ªf æ  Äà 9 ‘ z+z\"• ƒ5 µ” 1.06 µmœ © ºº r ´>´ : «f¸ Å 1 q Ï Nd:GdVO4 Ys$\ µ”r& Õ 1 :$` ˜“ U 1 ª lŒ £í Ц ¦ Ï x• ¤ ¦  i % [24]. ¢ô “ا ƒ5 µ” 1.34 µm-Nd:GdVO4 ¸ ¦4 Å 1 Ç ¦ q Ï UÐ Ys$– 2005¸ C. Du 1s 49.2 W_ Ys$ s H   x p  U  ¸¼Ð 3çŒ j/ š×– *i # þ@ 13.3 W_ Ys$ ا` %%   U 4 33 ¦¦  [25]. r : ¨f U ¸¼ ‘ ƒ½\" Ys$ sš×(LD)– é€ *i H Ð ß 3ç –    1.34 µm-Nd:GdVO4 Ys$< q‚þ &“ H Uü A ñ +   LBO(Lithium triborate, LiB3 O5 )` s6ô ? /”l ¦ xÇ    /Ò B N Òº   ” Bü þ Ë B”Ð ¨ Å Ã C\ f‚ /”l< V-+ Xj /l– ½ ¦  N A ]µ N íŒ $ # 670 nm-Nd:GdVO4 /LBO & Ys$\ µ”r Ò ho U 1 ¦ Ï ¦ ª lŒ £í ¸i : º  B v“ Õ 1 :$` › %. sM ¿ t /”l x• ¤ ¦  N ¨¸ /f U p 9 ß  qþ  ½›\ @K" Ys$ s1 B| ÷ë m ‚+  q  r– A  ñ / P$¼ òõ í<¦ A ñ /f & ?_ \EÝ ´\ Ÿ†rv“ q‚þ & ?\" ™ ¦Ê +   ¸¼ ¼ _ —× ßl\ ABCD F‚ '§ s` s6 # >í ¦ g = r¦ x  Ÿ> :  Œ ß – i f þ ñ B / Au B %. " q‚+ &s /”l ?\ 0ô /\  A  N ÇM f ¸¼ ¼ ú º ”¦ 3ç ” ¸¼ ßü j "_ —× ßl\ · à e“ *i c_ —× ¼l< þ ¦˜     h¼Ð A& A   A 1 N ¨ &ܖ Bg÷ q‚þ ñ_ 0u\ ¹ B”l ½ H + & ¦ Ô / ¸ jho ê U   º) 3ç > ›\ þ&r† Ê Ys$ ñ\ fÝ *i 0\ ¦  & ¨ a  / @ô 670 nm-Nd:GdVO4 /LBO &Ò Ys$_ ا :$ Ç o h U 4 £í ¦ ¤ – x¦ ¤  9 ßñí p £ñi x î&$ 1` 8& %. U ¸¼Ð 3ç ¦‰ h U  Ys$-sš×– *i  “^ &Ò Ys$ _  H o H Ñ Ñ Q ¼U 9 « u«, ( nÛeYs x Cr:LiSAF Ys$_ *i  ¦ U 3ç  g¶ x é p¼Ð Ÿ ,É Ö í : úÉ '” 9 F" 1ܖ_ ; V“ 6$ Më\ ´“ ›ds | ¤ r ¸x H §r a  æ &Q ® ò ¦ ßñ) ×÷# M. ´Ös Z“ î& 670 nm-&Ò Ys$ o ¦ } – a o h U ¦ H Ó  3 ½O¼Ð \ % ~Zܖ 1.3 µm _ “^ Ys$ü q‚ H © ¦‰ U<  œ  A &¦ xÇ þ     /Ò B Òº  ½O © + ñ` s6ô ? /”l Å Ã C ~Zs  N Ó œ –é  ߖf¸ òh j A çß €"• ´õ&s. þ\ 4ï0_ 1.3 µm_  HHr  q Ï Å 1 U ƒ5 µ” Ys$ Nd:YAG [1, 2], Nd:YVO4 [3–6] x 9 Nd:GdVO4 [7, 8]ñ` s6 # ƒ½÷# MÜ9, 1.3 &¦ x    Œ ¨&Q ®¼  o µm_ l‘ “^ Ys$\ %l 0ô *i Ys$  : ¦‰ U 3 A 3ç U  r ¦ Ç  œ ©¸ • 808 nm  880 nmü 885 nm“ Ys$ sš   <   U ¸ ¼  Œ : 8 ò ¾œ ¨ ×\ s6 # l‘ _ F¨ ´Ö` †©r† ½ ¦x r gŠ ¦¦ Ó  ƒ ¸ Ц&3 • ˜“÷% [9–11].  Ǽ  ô# Nd 3+ < A     Òº    ü q‚þ ñ` s6ô Å Ã C\ s + &¦ xÇ ¦ x Œ 6 # 2002¸\ Zheng 1s %6ܖ 97 mW ا_   x p ƒ£¼Ð § ¦ 4 q Ï Å 1 ƒ5 µ” 671 nm-Nd:YVO4 /LBO &Ò Ys$\ %% o h U 33 ¦    [12]. 2004¸\ Agnesi 1s 1340 nm-Nd:GdVO4 H  x p Uü Ys$< LiBO3 q‚+ &` s6 # 2.4 W ا þ ñ  Œ A  ¦ x ¦ 4  _ 670 nm-& Ys$\ %%Ü9 sM_ F ¨ ´ Ò ho U 33¼ : 8 ò ¦  g Š ¦r É Ö“ 26 % s% [13]. ¢ô °“ K\ F¨ ´Ös 3  ¸ úÉ  8 ò Ç r gŠ ¦ 21 %“ ƒ5µ” 671 nm-Nd:YVO4 /LBO &Ò Ys$  qÏ  Å1 o h U  ˜“&%Ü9 [14], 2009¸\ Zheng 1s F¨ ´ Ц÷3¼  H  x gŠ p 8 ò ¦r É Ö“ 9.3 %stë tFt  §“ 3.8 W_ 670 ß K ©  ¦4 – œ H Ø  nm-Nd:GdVO4 /LBO &Ò Ys$\ %% [15]. o h U 33 ¦  òõh¦ ” 9 ºº ho U 3 A ´&s“ c |s ÄÃô & Ys$\ %l 0K   Ç Ò ¦  ¤   £ 3ç Ð ß 3ç » ªQ U ‚ 8€ *i ˜ é€ *is Äo . Õ Y H –   9 Ph j : É ¦4 U 3 s$ B|_ \& ë] Më\ Z“ §_ Ys$\ %   H H }r Ø ¦ ¦  º ”  ” ` à e ô> e [16]. Z“ \„••\ ° “ H Ç  }r  É P¸¸ ú ¦ ¦ H ‰ Y   ¸ç& KÅ : l¸ ú¼ ^ Us$ ñõ •i÷ F5 s“_ 0• ±Ü€ & H q r x  –  ß 3ç Uf Ph Ҍ Œè&Q 8 É é€ *i Ys$\"_ \& Â{s y™÷#  Z“  ™ ™ }r ¦ 4 U 3 º ” ا_ Ys$\ %` à e [17]. ¦ ¦  hÐ U ñ D–î Ys$ &“ Nd:GdVO4  Óo&, F†& r   H t  gÆ  üh <h Æ  9 i<h í9 ººŒ úÉ '” x %†& $|s Äà # ´“ ›d` 4MÜ9 §r a¦ R®¼ o [6, 18] <110> ~¾Ü–_ \„•• 11.7 W/mKÜ Ó† ½Ó¼Ð P¸¸  H ¼ Ð – Nd:YVO4 &÷ë m Nd:YAG &˜• ß  r– ñß   ñи ¼ ∗ E-mail: II. ÷]XV V õ ŒàM ÄV Çös mMê ŒR m ŸÃ Z Ë Í «Å ØÄ Figure 1(a)“ Ys$-sš×– é€ *  670 r É U ¸¼Ð ß 3i – ç H nm-Nd:GdVO4 /LBO & Ys$_ ¨€-¸3+ f Ò ho U î šlþ ”  qA  htchoo@kumoh.ac.kr U$ ¸¼Ð 3ç Ys-sš×– *i  670-nm Nd:GdVO4 /LBO &Ò Ys$_ 1 :$· · · – $¹ 1  H o h U lŒ £í x• ¤  ¤ x í¡ p -159- Fig. 2. Schematic diagram of a two-mirror cavity with the internal thermal lens. ïA) Bø⠝h /Òì 100 mm“ š3Ös. N d3+ s“\ a G¦Í  q¦  ¸l : r 4 4 f " 1.06 µm( F3/2 → I11/2 ) …s_ ”1` 3]rvl ;  l j x¦ % Af 4É 0K" ا֓ 1.06 µm\"_ Øìô ÈõÖ(>90 ¦ ¦r f  Ò ærÇ ¦ %)` °•2 h %. Figure 1(b)\"_ É ì ¦ ¤  ú¸Ÿ ïAi  f r ø “Í ¦ Р֖ 1.34 µm\" “ì÷“ 808 nmü 1.06 µm\" f ¦ø&¦ Í < f H  ¦Òõ ïA) B¦ø⠍ “È h /ìs 150 mm“ š3Ös. a GÒÍ  q¦  ¸l M1  670 nm x 1.34 µm\" —¿ “ì ïh ¨ H  9 f ¸º ¦ø A) î Í a ¦   € Ös9, M2  اÖs9 1.34 µm\" “ì H ¦ ¦  4 f ¦ø Í &¦ ÷“ 670 nm\" ÈÖs 85 %– h /Òì 100 f Òõ ¦ Ð ïA) Bøâ a G¦Í mm“ š3Ös.  q¦  ¸l tÇ ü ü ú U  9 þ ñ P „Õô < °s Ys$ ñ x q‚+ &_ \ & A    ¤ r h £íÉ U 4 9 ßñ   < º  & :$“ Ys$ ا x î&í` ñ X BÄ × ¦ – $¦ & H æ ¹ P$¼ ò > B ¨¸f U ¯ . \EÝ ´õ ”F  /”l ½›\" Ys ™ r H N  B –ñ¸ É P$¼ íh  ñ $ /”l_ ß&›|“ \EÝ œ&o\ _K & N î r ™   a ) . Figure 2 /”l_ „ì Öõ اÖ_ ¿  H N  B ø  4 º © Í ¦ ¦ ¦ œ   U p 9 9 þ   /ҁ û _ Öõ Ys$ s1 B| x q‚+ ñ_ ?Â\ · ¦ q  A & ª r ™ ¦ H x N É P$¼ ú p B ¨¸ · B “ \EÝ\ ° 1 /”l ½›\  . /”l ¦ p N /f ¸¼ ¼   B 3 Af ?\"_ —× ßl\ s6ô /”l ì$` 0K" ¦ xÇ N r¦ H U p 9   A   P$Ý íh Ys$ s1 B| ñõ q‚þ ñ_ \E¼ œ& q  & + & ™   ¦9 ÒQß Ç o\ “K Å#ë . FiG. 2\" R1 x R2  y ¦ –ô f 9 H• Œ • N Œ B  Bøâ / y /”l Ö_ /Òì`  ?€ fth x fL “ Y ¦ G¦Í ¦  9 r ÉU  p 9 þ ñ P$¼ íh s$ s1 B|õ q‚+ &_ \EÝ œ&os. q A  ™  L1 , L2 x L3 “ s[ ·“ \EÝ e 0u_ F†& r t ªr ™ 9 É þ ûÉ P$¼ ” A <h H gÆ  · : U p 9 9 þ  o\  . sM Ys$ s1 B| x q‚+  ¦ p q  A  ñ /f & ?\"_ T EM00 —× ßl ABCD F‚ '§ s ¸¼ ¼ H g =  Ÿ>  r¦ x :  Œ ßÉ º ” ` s6 # >í+ à e. Figure 2–Â' /”l –½  ÐÒ B N g¤ Ÿ M4 ABCD '>“ §r Ÿ=É AB CD 1 L3 01 1 L2 01 1 L1 01 10 2 − R2 1 10 − f1 1 th 10 − f1 1 th 1 L3 01 1 L1 01 1 L2 01 10 − f1 1 L 10 2 − R1 1 10 (1) − f1 1 L Fig. 1. Schematic diagram of the 670 nm-Nd:GdVO4 /LBO red laser for (a) linear cavity and (b) V-type folded cavity.  /  N ¨¸ / ‚ B”l ½›\  ?9, Fig. 1(b) 670 nm¦ H  Nd:GdVO4 /LBO &Ò Ys$_ V-+ ]j /”l o h U þ XË B A µ N ¨¸ · 3ç UÐ © ½›\  . *i Ys$– s 808 nms ¦ p  H œ  ¦ j/ 4 “ þ@ اs 25 W“ Ys$-sš×(JOLD-25¦   U ¸¼ CPXF-1L, JENOPTIK)\ 6 %Ü9, # t2s ¦ x   i¼ ïQ £ § 200 µm“ F$Ė ĕ&# q½€ EÝ ›½` :K  3»Ð »¸÷Q ¨ $¼ ¸+ Ÿ  g ™ ˦ x Nd:GdVO4 &ܖ |5r(. sM q½€ Eݍ  ñ¼Ð 9ŏ : ¨ $¼ q  ™ H íh œ&o 60 mm“ L1 õ 70 mm“ L2 _ ›½Ü– s        ¸+¼Ð  Ë ÒQ ’¼ »ò íh À# &Ü9 Ä´ œ&o 72.25 mms9, q½€ E   H  ¨ $ ™ ¼ ŸÇ ê U 4É U ¸¼ Ý\ :õ Ê_ Ys$ ا“ Ys$-sš×_ F ¦x ô ¦r g  3»ÐÒ Ð ¸ ¦4  $ĖÂ' – š §_ € 90 %– 8&÷%. H Ø • Ð £ñ&3 ¤  p 9 s1 B|“ Nd:GdVO4 &“ N d3+  0.3 at. % q   r ñÉ ¸ç) ”¢‰ þÐ ¼ ŒŒ •i f¹€^ +I– ßl yy 3 × 3 × 8 mm3 s a ¤ A H ••  ¦ Å 1 U ÒÐ  & “ ƒ5 µ” Ys$\ Ŗ 6÷ a-cut Nd:GdVO4 q Ï xH  ¦ x  ñ  i¼ 4 ò } AŒ ñ &` 6 %Ü9 ا ´Ö` sl 0 # & ¦ ¦¦ Z   ªá  ¸º _ €A € —¿ 808 nmü 1.34 µm\" Áì h œ¤  < f ºø ïA Í i ¸ P Xú ¾œ A o í9Ð %. ¢ô, \ ]8` †©rvl 0K “´ Ÿ{–  Ç  ¤¦ Ó u  ™– § x Œß £ !l¼Ð jŒ) ԁ ©Ãi¼ P yø 6 S1ܖ ] îà\ ‚ %Ü9 \ •a r œÌ    ͕  tŒ „ ‰yl(TE-cooler) x “• ›]l\ s6 # && r 9 :¸ ¸X  Œ hñ ¦ x  r¦ :¸ » A ñ “•\ Ätr(. q‚þ &“ LBO(Lithium tribo +   rate, LiB3 O5 ) type-<&(θ = 86.1◦ , φ = 0◦ )s9 f H   ñ ”  3 ¤ A ¢‰ þÐ ¼ ŒŒ ¹€^ +I– ßl yy 3 × 3 × 15 mm s“  H •• ¦   €¤  ñ œá  ¸º &_ ªA € —¿ 1.34 µmü 670 nm\" Áì h < f ºø ïA Í i¼ !l¼Ð jŒ) ԁ ©Ã¦ P t %Ü9 S1ܖ ] îà\ ‚ “ \„ ‰  x •a r œÌ  Í • Œ yl(TE-cooler) x “• ›]l\ s6 # {&ô “ r 9 :¸ ¸X  Œ 9ñ : ¦ x  Ç r ¸Ð » •– Ätr(. Figure 1(a)\"_ M1 “ “ìÖ  f rÍ É ¦ø ¦ Ð – 1.34 µmü 670 nm\" “ì÷“ 808 nmü 1.06 < f ¦ø&¦ Í < µm\" “Èõ h ¨Ös. M2  ا֖ f ¦Ò ïA) î a € ¦ H ¦ ¦  4Ð 1.34 µm\" “ì&“ 670 nm\" ÈÖs 85 %– f ¦ø÷¦ Í f Òõ ¦ Ð = -160- ÇGt Æ Dü<r hü ô²Óo†t “DÓo”, Volume 61, Number 2, 2011¸ 2 t 4 Z Fig. 4. Spectrum of 670 nm-Nd:GdVO4 /LBO red laser. Fig. 3. 1.34 µm-Nd:GdVO4 laser output power versus absorbed pump power. 670 nm-Ys$ ا` %%Ü9 ÕM_ F ¨ ´Ö x U 4 33¼ ª: 8 ò 9 ¦¦  g Š ¦  . sM q‚+ &\"_ T EM00 —× ßl a ) : þ ñf A  ¸¼ ¼ H £ ú ÒQ 6õ °s Å#”. §  ω= λ|B | π 1 − [(A + D)/2]2 (2) ¦ H ¦ 4 î  òÉ ŒŒ ا_ ¨ç lÖl ´Ö“ yy 6.8 % x 8.8 %– 8& ¦r •• 9 Ð £ñ ¤ &3 ÷%.  Figure 5(b) { *i 0\ 17.5 W(670 nm Ø H    9 3ç > ¦ ¦   4 §-0.95 W)– “& “ LBO_ “• \  670 Ð ¦ñ¦  :¸ o É r r nm-Nd:GdVO4 /LBO & Ys$_ ا :$`  Ò ho U 4 £í  ¦ ¤ ¦ p · ¯ 9 3ç >  s. { *i 0 17.5 W“ Ä 28 ◦ C      ⺠Ò H f \" 1.29 W_ 670 nm Ys$ ا` %# LBO_ “•  U 4 3Q ¦¦   :¸ r ¦ Ӝ &  ½© 9  » ¯ 4 ßñ\ º  \ † {ñ > Ätrv s ا î& BÄ × H ¦ – æ ¹ ¹è” X+ º ”3 ¯ô ¯™e` S“½ à e%. Ç ¦ ‰É  Figure 6(a) 8 /”l Us 173 mm“ V-+ ] H x N ´  ú B    þ X A µ N Ë B ¨¸9 : þ ñ j /”l ½›{ M q‚+ &“ LBO_ “¸ ›]  A    :• ¸X rH ¦   úÉ ©f 9 3ç > É ` t ·“ I\" { *i 0\  670 nm §r œ   r ¦ ¤ ¦ 4 £í · 9 3ç > ا :$`  . { *i 0 19 W { M þ p    9:j / @ 0.53 W_ 670 nm-Ys$ ا` %%Ü9 ªM_ F  U 4 33¼ Õ: ¦¦  g Š ¦ ¦ H ¦ 8 ò 9 4 î  òÉ Œ• ¨ ´Ö x ا_ ¨ç lÖl ´Ö“ yŒ 2.9 % x ¦r •y 9 6.1 %– 8& ÷%. Ð £ñ &3 ¤  Figure 6(b) { *i 0\ 17.5 W(0.5 W_ 670 H    9 3ç > ¦  nm ا)– “& “ LBO_ “• \  670 nm ¦ 4 Ð ¦ñ¦  :¸ o É r r ¦ ¤ ¦ 4 £í ·  ” Bfü ú ا :$`   ¯s. f‚ /”l\"< °s 670 p  N nm Ys$ اs LBO “•_ %†` ~“ e6` S U 4 ¦ r :¸ ò¾ æ ”£ X Ó¦ Î §¦ ‰   –r ¦ iß :¸ ¸ñ úÉ âº< j/ 4 “ %të “•\ ›& t ·“ Äü þ@ ا_ §r ¦ xr lÉ Ð ú¦ ” f :¸ 8 9 º ” 1“ ˜st ·“ e. " “•\  Z{ à e § r¦ }  H r¦ x  ¸É  Œ 4 £í ¸ 9¹ ”  š‘` s6 # ا :$` ›K^ €¯ e ¦ ¤ ¦ ¦  ¦ qŒ)  ” B ¨¸ 9 þ XË ¨ “ Òy. ô# f /”l ½› x V-+ ]j ½ t•a Ǽ ‚ N A µ ¸f ›\" 670 nm &Ò Ys$_ ا s V-+ ]j o h U 4  þ XË ¦ H A µ ¨¸f B  8 QRf U p  ½›\"_ /”l Us  U#4" Ys$ s1 B N ´ ´ q  9f ¸¼ ¼ £ Œ 3ç U ¸¼ A |\"_ —× ßl 7 # *i Ys$ —× Bg x  ò QR : ´Ös b#4 l‘ “ 1.34 µm-Nd:GdVO4 Ys$_ ¦ r U ¦ ™ 4 Œè :¼Ð qŒ) اs y™ l Mëܖ Òy. H t•a Œf  1 U © · #l" λ µ” Ys$_ `  . H Ï œ¦ p III. ÷]+Ê õ À8 ÇöÇ Í Ø mMsÝ m Xý Figure 3\ 1.34 µm\"_ “ì Ö(High reflec H f ¦ø  Í ¦ tor, R > 99.9 %)õ ا Ö(Output coupler, R = 95  4  ¦ ¦ %)– sÀ#” f /”l\" /”l Us\ 60 mm– Ð ÒQ ” Bf B   ‚ N N ´ ¦ Ð ¦ñ¦ U 9 “& “ Ys$ B|“ Nd:GdVO4 &\ fÝ Y   ¨ a ñ º) U  ¸¼ s$ sš×(808 nm)_ *i 0\  l‘ 1.34  3ç > É :  rr µm-Nd:GdVO4 Ys$ ا :$`  Í. Ys$ B U 4 £í Ç U  ¦ ¤ ¦ x  ¨ a  9 º) 3ç > |\ fÝ *i 0 11.8 W{ M j@ 4.95 W_ Y  9 : þ/ U  4 33¼ s$ ا` %%Ü9, *i 0\ 7rv€ \EÝ ¦¦   3ç > £  P$¼ ¦x  ™ íh ŒèŒ 4 Œè< Xi¼ U œ&o y™ # اs y™†` S“ %Ü9 Y  ™ ¦ ™ ʦ ‰   4 î  òÉ s$ ا_ ¨ç lÖl ´Ö“ 43.5 %s%. ¦ H ¦ ¦r 3  Figure 4“ Ys$-sš×– é€ *i  ƒ5 µ r É U ¸¼Ð ß 3ç Å 1 –  H q Ï   ” 670 nm-Nd:GdVO4 /LBO & Ys$_ 1” Û&à Ò ho U Ï ¼7Ô µ ˜ ¦ ìg 3 r  !` Fl(SpectraPro-750, ARC)\ s6 # 8&ô ¦x   Œ £ñ ¤ Ç   1 © õs9 µ” s 670 nme` S“½ à e%. Ï œ ¦ ‰É ” X+ º ”3  Figure 5(a) /”l Us 88 mm“ f /”l H N ´  B   ‚ N  ” B ¨¸9 : þ ñ ½›{ M q‚+ &“ LBO_ “•\ ›]` t ·  A    :¸ ¸X  ú r ¦ ¦ § rœ É ©f U ¸¼ 9 3ç > É “ I\" Ys$ sš×_ { *i 0\    r 670 nm-Nd:GdVO4 /LBO & Ys$_ ا :$`  Ò ho U 4 £í  ¦ ¤ ¦ · 9 3ç > . { *i 0 17.5 W { M þ@ 0.95 W_ p    9 : j/  U$ ¸¼Ð 3ç Ys-sš×– *i  670-nm Nd:GdVO4 /LBO &Ò Ys$_ 1 :$· · · – $¹ 1  H o h U lŒ £í x• ¤  ¤ x í¡ p -161- Fig. 5. 670 nm-red laser output power versus (a) incident pump power and (b) LBO temperature for linear cavity. Fig. 6. 670 nm-red laser output power versus (a) incident pump power and (b) LBO temperature for V-type folded cavity. Figure 7“ f /”l ½›< V-+ Xj /”l ½ r ‚ N É ” B ¨¸ü þ Ë B ¨ A ]µ N ¸f ›\"_ 670 nm ا î&$`  Í. Figure 7(a) ¦ – ¦ 4 ßñí Ç x H  ‚ N ” B ¨¸f 9 3ç > f /”l ½›\" { *i 0 12.5 W\" 3ì   f  r x– ¤ Ç  lß £ñ  4 l / 1î 8&ô õs9 ا 1\ @ô rms °“ 2.4 ¦ x Ç ¯r úÉ %– 8&÷%. Figure 7(b) V-+ ]j /”l ½ Ð £ñ&3 ¤  H  þ XË B ¨ A µ N ¸9 : 9 3ç > ” B ¨¸fÐ ›{ Ms9 { *i 0\ f /”l ½›\"˜    ¦ ‚ N  8 É   Z“ 19 W– 7rv“ ا 1Ò 8& rç• }r Ð £ ¦ 4 l £ñ ߸ x ¦ x¦ ¤ – 10ìܖ Z 8& %. Õ õ f‚ /”l ½›\ r ¼Ð þ9 £ñi ª  ” B ¨¸ t ¤    N f ˜ 4 l / " Ð ا 1\ @ô rms °s 1.16 % – ±fs ¦ x Ç ¯ ú Ð ú”  ‰ X&Q S“÷# 670 nm_ &Ò Ys$ ا“ të ß&$  h U 4É Œß –ñí o ¦r • – î   ºº< ú º ”3  ” B ¨¸ s 8 ÄÆ` · à e%. s f‚ /”l ½›\ ʦ ˜  H  N f A ñÉ þ Ë B ¨¸f< "_ q‚þ &“ V-+ Xj /”l ½›\"ü +  r A ]µ N H ˜   ú 9 3ç > ò¾ ” à þ   ²o { *i 0_ %†` fX ~ q‚+ ñ_ Ó¦ Î A & r :¸ o ”h¼Ð ò¾ Ò :¼Ð qŒ) “• \ fX&ܖ %†` Ål Mëܖ Òy  Ó¦ H t•a  f 4 l ßñí ß ¦9 þ . " ا 1_ î&$ ë` “ô€ V-+ ¦ x – –¦ Ç A µ N XË B ¨¸ 8 Ô¦ qŒ) ]j /”l ½›  |f “ Òy. Ð t•a Figure 8_ (a)ü (b) ¿ t /”l ½›\" Ys  < H  º  B ¨¸f U N  p 9 Píh  $ s1 B|_ \œ& o(fth )ü LBO ?_ \œ&  q   < / Píh    o(fL ) &K| M LBO ?\"_ —× ì ßl\ >  ñ9 : /f ¸¼ øâ ¼  Í ¦ – ߌ ŒŒ Ç ªËfü ú ” B ¨ í # yy  Í. Õa\"< °s f /”l ½ •• x > ‚ N ¸f ›\" LBO s1 B|\ ÖÃ2 —× ßl H p 9 ºŸ ¸¼ ¼ q ¦¤ • Œ¦ “, V-+ Xj /”l ½›\" LBO “ì þ Ë B ¨¸f A ]µ N H ¦ø Í ¦  ֓ M1 \" #*ô {&ô o b# &` M —× f Q‹ 9ñ  Q ’ : ¸¼ Ç  Ç  ¦ Í øâ ¼ ŒÉ ¯ X&Q A   A¸ ì ßl “ s S“÷# q‚þ ñ_ 0u• •r ‰ + & þ   :¸< 8Q B ¨í+ : ¹ q‚+ ñ_ “•ü Ô# /”l\ ½$½ M ׯ A & r ¦ N ¦ É æ Ç  ¹èÐ Œ < Xi ô ¯™– 6†` S“ %. •xʦ ‰  Figure 9“ f‚ /”l ½›\" { * 0 r  N É ” B ¨¸f 9 3i >  ç 12 W { M q‚+ ñ“ LBO o \ @ô 670  9 : þ   A &  o /  Ç nm_ ا :$`  . Õa\"< ° LBO   4 £í · ªËfü ús ¦ ¤ ¦ p >   ñ p 9 ºŸ ¦4 8 É ¯ X &s s1 B|\ ÖÃ2 §s  Z“ ` S“ q ¦ ¤ Ø }r ¦ ‰ i¼  ¸¼ ¼ ŒºŸ Òº  ) %Ü9 s —× ßl `Ã2 Å Ã C 670  H •¦ ¤ a nm اs 7 l Mës Òy. ¦ x 4 £  : qŒ) H t•a -162- ÇGt Æ Dü<r hü ô²Óo†t “DÓo”, Volume 61, Number 2, 2011¸ 2 t 4 Z Fig. 7. Stability of 670 nm-red laser output power for (a) linear cavity and (b) V-type folded cavity Figure 10_ (a)ü (b)\ º± ½Z(knife edge  <  úú ÓO H ˜˜ ~ method)` s6 # f‚ /”l ½›\" { *i ¦x   Œ ” B ¨¸f 9 3ç  N   > 0 12 W { M 670 nm-&Ò Ys$ ا(0.6 W)_ 9:  o h U 4 ¦  2  9¦ ” | / c `  ? M x µßy` yy 8& #  H Ï핦 •• ¤ 9 1–Œ ŒŒ £ñŒ  x Ǽ ÍÜ9 M 2 x µßy“ 2.79 x 12.8 mrad ܖ S“÷ Ïí•r 9 1–ŒÉ 9 ¼Ð X& ‰  3 %. Figure 11“ f‚+ /”l ½›\" CCD Ys$ c r A N É ”þ B ¨¸f U ”  profiler(Gentec Co.)\ s6 # { *i 0 12 W ¦x   Œ 9 3ç >    9M { : 0.6 W ا_ 670 nm-Nd:GdVO4 /LBO & Ys ¦ 4 Ò ho U  ” é j í £ñŒ Ç ªË $ c_ "o [l ìŸ\ 8& #  Í. Õa\ ¶ r ¦ ¤ x > fü ú 4 U ”É  ºß í” X "< °s ا Ys$ c“ _ Ärî ìŸe` S ¦ r – r ¦ ‰ É + º ”3 “½ à e%.  Fig. 8. Laser mode radius versus the distance of LBO for (a) linear cavity and (b) V-type folded cavity. IV. +  ÇØ s] U ¸¼ Ys$ sš×(LD)– é€ *i  1.34 µmÐ ß 3ç –  H Nd:GdVO4 Ys$< q‚+ ñ“ LBO(Lithium triUü þ   A & Fig. 9. 670 nm-red laser output power versus the distance of LBO. borate, LiB3 O5 )` s6ô ? /”l Å º C\ ¦ xÇ    /Ò B Òà   N ¦ U$ ¸¼Ð 3ç Ys-sš×– *i  670-nm Nd:GdVO4 /LBO &Ò Ys$_ 1 :$· · · – $¹ 1  H o h U lŒ £í x• ¤  ¤ x í¡ p -163-  ¸¼ ¼ ŒºŸ : > 9¸ £ s$ —× ßl `Ã2 l‘ _ 0 x•\ 7 •¦ ¤ r  ¦x  º ”Q Òº  ) U 4 ò £ r~ à e# Å Ã C Ys$ ا ´Ö` 7 ´  a ¦ ¦¦ x  º ”¼ : ¨f¸ B / Us ¸¼ r~ à eÜ9 ‘ ƒ½\"• /”l ?_ Y$ —× ´  r N ¼ ŒÉ Bf 4 £ † «h¼Ð X ßl “ /\" اs 7H` z+&ܖ S“ •r M ¦ x d¦ ´> ‰ É + º ”3 ½ à e%.   N ” B ¨¸f B  f‚ /”l ½›\" /”l Us\ 88 mm{ M 19 N ´ ¦  9: W_ { *i 0\" LBO_ “• 28 ◦ CÐ Ätr  9 3ç >f    :¸ rH – »   ê £ñ † Ê 8&ô 670 nm-Nd:GdVO4 /LBO & Ys$ Ø ¤ Ç Ò ho U  ¦ r 4É j/ §“ þ@ 1.29 Ws%Ü9 sM_ F ¨ ´Ö“ 6.8 3¼ : 8 òÉ  g Š ¦r %– 8&÷%“ ا 1\ @ô rms °“ 2.4 %– 8 Ð £ñ&3¦ 4 l / ¤  ¦ x Ç ¯r úÉ Ð£ ¤  ñ&3 &÷%. V-+ ]j /”l ½›\" 8 /l Us þ XË B ¨¸f ú B”  A µ N x N ´  173 mm{ M 17.5 W_ { *i 0\f LBO_  9:  9 3ç >"    r¦ :¸ “•\ 29 ◦ C– Ätr† Ê 8&ô 670 nm-Nd:GdVO4 Ð » ê £ñ  ¤ Ç /LBO & Ys$ ا“ 0.6 Ws%Ü9 sM_ F  Ò ho U 4É ¦r 3¼ :   g Š¦ 8 ò ¨ ´Ös 2.9 %s“ ا 1\ @ô rms ú“ 1.16 ¦ 4 l / ¦ x Ç ¯É °r %– 8&÷# ا“ të ا î&$É  Äà Р£ñ&Q 4É Œß 4 ßñír 8 ºº ¤ ¦r • – ¦ – “ Ê ‰  < X&3 ” B ¨¸f ¸ úú Ó †s S“÷%. f /”l ½›\" ¢ô º± ½ ‚ N Ç ˜˜ ~  O Z(Knife-Edge Method)` s6 # 0.6 W ا_ 670 ¦x   Œ ¦ 4 nm-Nd:GdVO4 /LBO &Ò Ys$ ا c_ `  o h U 4 ” |  ¦  9¦ / ? M 2 ü c µíy` 8&ô õ yy 2.79 ü 12.8 H < ” 1ߌ £ñ  ŒŒ  ϖ•¦ ¤ Ç  •• < mradܖ 8& ÷%. ¼Ð £ñ &3 ¤  Añ q‚þ&“ LBO\ s6ô 670 nm-Nd:GdVO4 / +  ¦    xÇ LBO &Ò Ys$ /”l ½›÷ m Us$ B o h U B ¨¸  Y  H N r Ê 9 < A ñ :¸ o / 4 9 ß |õ †a q‚þ &_ “• \ @ô ا x î +  r  Ç ¦ –  ñí o 9Qß f B ¨¸ ™þo  &$  {#è. " /”l ½›\ è+ – N ¦A Fig. 10. (a) The beam quality(M ) and (b) the beam divergence. 2  f þho¦ 9  þ   ñ9 €" j&rv“ B|÷ m q‚+ ñ_ &x  r A &  Çr  :¸ jQ ºø& á 8 ò ¦ ßñ) ô “• ]# Ãì÷€ 7  ´Ös Z“ î& 670 Í § ¦ } – a nm &Ò Ys$\ %` à e` s Òy÷9 s\ o h U 3 º ” ¯ qŒ&  ¦ ¦ ¦ t• / ¨¸ Ÿ  @ô ƒ½• ”' ×s. Ç  æ p cý k P8 ò > r H : ¨ K¸B/<§ 9øj <ü½ é ‘ ƒ½ Fš/õ@†“ {ìõ] †Õƒ¨q t" N Æ Í Æt ¶  Œ ºŸ&3¼  Œ¼n \ _ # Ã'÷%Ü9 s\ y×wm.  ™  Fig. 11. The Far-field intensity distribution of the 670 nm-Nd:GdVO4 /LBO red laser beam. ‚ N ” Bü þ XË BÐ ¨íŒ f /”l< V-+ ]j /”l– ½$ # 670 nmA µ N Nd:GdVO4 /LBO &Ò Ys$\ µ”rv“ Õ 1 : o h U 1¦ ª lŒ £ ¦ Ï x• ¤ ¦ í ¸i º  B ¨¸ /f $` › %. ¿ t /”l ½›\ @K" ABCD  N g = r¦ x  Ÿ> :  Œ U 9 9 þ ñ F‚ '§ s` s6 # Ys$ B| x q‚+ &  A  f P$¼ í<) B 3¦ h U \"_ \EÝ Ÿ† /”l\ ì$ “ &Ò Ys ™ Êa N ¦ r o  4 £í £ñi A ñ 9 U $ ا :$` 8& %. q‚þ &\ {  Y ¦ ¤ ¦ ¤  +   H p cŠU YwÔ Øô [1] T. Wang, J. Yao, G. Yu, P. Wang, X. Li and Y. Yu, Chinese Opt. Lett. 1, 661 (2003). [2] R. Zhou, W. Wen, Z. Cai, X. Ding, P. Wang and J. 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