MidtermNotes - AP World History: Final Review Notes...

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AP World History: Final Review Notes CHAPTER1: -Hominids adapt environment to themselves: use of tools, language, complex cooperative social structures *Global Spread of hominids and Homo-Sapiens (map) -By 13000 BCE Homo Sapiens in every inhabitable part of the world -Archaeological finds: Sophisticated tools: choppers, scrapers, axes, knives, bows, arrows, cave & hut like dwellings, use of fire, animal skins -Nomadic culture precludes accumulation of land-based wealth -more likely determinants of status: age, hunting, skill, fertility, charisma -possible gender equality related to food production -division of labor along gender lines -men: protein from hunting -women: plant gathering -evidence of intelligent coordination of hunting expeditions -development of weaponry -animal-skin disguises -stampeding tactics: lighting of fires, etc, to drive game into kill zones Neolithic Era (New stone age) -Distinction in tool production: chipped vs. Polished -Men: herding animals rather than hunting _Women: nurtured vegetation rather than foraging -Spread of Agriculture Slash-and-and burn techniques -exhaustion of soil promotes migration -transport of crops from one region to another *Origin of early spread of agriculture (map) CHAPTER2: Mesopotamia -“Between the Rivers” :Tigris and Euphrates -Contemporary Iran, Iraq -Cultural continuum of “fertile crescent” The wealth of the rivers -Nutrient-rich silt -Key> irrigation -necessity of coordinated efforts -promotes development of local government -city states
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-Summer begins small-scale irrigation 6000 BCE -By 5000 BCE, complex irrigation networks -population reaches 100000 by 3000 BCE -Attracts Semitic migrants, influences culture Sumerian City- States -Cities appear 4000BCE -Dominate region from 3200-2350 BCE -Ur (home of Abraham), Nineveh -ziggurat home of the god -Divine mandate to Kings -regulation of Trade Political Decline of Sumer -Semitic peoples from northern Mesopotamia overshadow Sumer -Sargon of Akkad (2370-2315 BCE) -destroyed Sumerian city-states oe by one, created empire based in Akkad -empire unable to maintain chronic rebellions -Hammurabi of Babylon (1792-1750 BCE) -Improved taxation, legislation -Used local governors to maintain control of city0states -Babylonian Empire later destroyed by Hittites from Anatolia, c. 1595 BCE Legal System -The Code of Hammurabi (18 th c. BCE) -282 items -lex talionis (item 196: “eye for an eye”) -Social status and punishment -women as property, but some rights Later Mesopotamian Empires -Weakening of central rule an invitation to foreign invaders -Assyrians use new iron weaponry -Beginning 1300 BCE, by 8 th -7tg centuries BCE control Mesopotamia, Syria, Palestine, most of Egypt -Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon (r. 605-562) takes advantage of internal dissent to create Chaldean (New Babylonian) Empire Technological Development in Mesopotamia -Bronze (copper with tin) c. 4000BCE -Military, agricultural applications -Iron c 1000BCE -cheaper than bronze -Wheel, boats, c. 3500 BCE -Shipbuilding increases trade networks
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This note was uploaded on 03/22/2011 for the course HIST 101 taught by Professor Ludwig during the Spring '10 term at Moorpark College.

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MidtermNotes - AP World History: Final Review Notes...

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