ANTHR mid-term - Anthropology 101 Mid-term Exam Four fields...

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Anthropology 101 Mid-term Exam Four fields of anthropology : 1) Cultural - the study of human society and culture - analyze, interprets, and explain social and cultural similarities/differences - engaged in 2 kinds of activities: ethnography/ethnology 2) Archaeology - reconstructed culture & human behavior through material remains (weapons) 3) Linguistic - comparative, historical study of language - should conduct in local language 4) Biological human biological diversity - human evolution - genetics - growth & development - plasticity - primatology Methods Ethnographic techniques: Participant Observation : Observation of individual and collective behavior (totality of lives: details of daily life, seasonal events and unusual happenings) in varied settings. Key consultants : informant who is an expert on a participant aspect of local life Genealogical method : Procedures by which ethnographers discover and record connections of kinship, descent, and marriage, using diagrams and symbols Emic perspective : Local point of view insider’s account (explanations and criteria of significance) Etic perspective : Scientific perspective an outsider’s (ethnographer’s ) interpretation Ethnography: fieldwork in a particular culture First hand personal study of local settings Data collection
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Ethnology : Interpretation/ Analysis of results of Ethnography (cross-cultural comparison) Culture Attributes of Culture : 1) “Codebook” of reality – transforms physical reality into experience reality (Individual = nature) 2) System of proof vary in different cultures Cultural Relativism : behavior/ standard/ values of cultures differ, thus should not be judged by the standards of another and deserve respects Ethnocentrism : Pattern to view one’s cultural behaviors, beliefs and attitudes as best or superior and to judge the behavior and beliefs of culturally different people by one’s own standards. Acculturation : The exchange of cultural features that results when groups come into continuous first hand contact, the cultural patterns of either or both groups may be changes, but the groups remain distinct. Cultural Exchange Cultural Imperialism : The rapid spread or advance of one culture at the expense of others, or its imposition on other cultures, which it modifies, replaces, or destroyed. It is usually the case that the former is a large, economically or militarily powerful nation and the latter is a smaller, less important one. Usually because of economic or political influence (Our culture is better than your culture) Moral relativism : philosophical view that what is right or wrong and good or bad is not absolute but variable and relative, depending on the person, circumstances, or social situation. Relative frame of reference
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ANTHR mid-term - Anthropology 101 Mid-term Exam Four fields...

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