Chapter10DarwinismandtheRiseofMentalTesting

Chapter10DarwinismandtheRiseofMentalTesting - The Darwinian...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–8. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Click to edit Master subtitle style The Darwinian Influence and the Rise of Mental Testing Chapter 10
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Evolutionary Theory before Darwin ¢ Anaximander proposed evolution from fish. ¢ Plato and Aristotle did not believe in evolution. ¢ Christianity added the divine creation described in Genesis. l Evolutionary thinking was put to rest!
Background image of page 2
Evolutionary Theory Before Darwin Erasmus Darwin ¢ Zoönomia (1794-1796)- Would it be too bold to imagine that, in the great length of time since the earth began to exist, perhaps millions of ages before the commencement of the history of mankind would it be too bold to imagine that all warm-blooded animals have arisen from one living filament, which the great First Cause endued with animality, with the power of acquiring new parts, attended with new propensities, directed by irritations, sensations, volitions and associations, and thus possessing the faculty of continuing to improve by its own inherent activity, and of delivering down these improvements by generation to its posterity, world without end!
Background image of page 3

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Evolutionary Theory Before Darwin Jean Lamarck ¢ Philosophie Zoologique (1809), noted that fossil forms different from living forms, therefore species change over time. l Environmental change might be responsible for structural ¢ Inheritance of Acquired Characteristics : Lamarck's contention that adaptive abilities developed during an organism's lifetime are passed on to the organism's offspring.
Background image of page 4
Evolutionary Theory Before Darwin Herbert Spencer ¢ No formal education ¢ Worked for railroad, surveyor to engineer ¢ Worked as a journalist l From his voracious reading and the exchanges with his group of friends during the early 1850s Spencer acquired a general vision of the world that was to have a more pervasive effect on nineteenth century thinking than that of any other philosopher of his era.”
Background image of page 5

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Evolutionary Theory Before Darwin Herbert Spencer View of Evolution ¢ Spencer attempted to apply evolutionary thinking not just to animals, but also to the human mind, and human societies and to everything in the universe. ¢ Everything begins as an undifferentiated whole. Through evolution, differentiation occurs so that systems become increasingly complex. ¢ Spencer-Bain Principle : The observation first made by Bain and later by Spencer that behavior resulting in pleasurable consequences (conducive to survival) tends to be repeated and behavior resulting in painful consequences tends not to be. l Evolutionary associationism
Background image of page 6
Herbert Spencer Social Darwinism ¢ Evolution meant progress, it is the mechanism by which perfection is approximated. ¢ Social Darwinism : Spencer's contention that, if given freedom to compete in society, the ablest individuals will succeed, the weaker ones will fail, and this is as it should be. l
Background image of page 7

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Image of page 8
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Page1 / 54

Chapter10DarwinismandtheRiseofMentalTesting - The Darwinian...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 8. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online