Chapter9VoluntarismStructuralismandOtherEarlyAp

Chapter9VoluntarismStructuralismandOtherEarlyAp -...

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Click to edit Master subtitle style Voluntarism, Structuralism, and Other Early Approaches to Chapter 9
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Wilhelm Wundt Measuring a Voluntary Process
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Schools of Psychology ¢ School : A group of scientists who share common assumptions, goals, problems, and methods. l Similar to Kuhn’s notion of paradigm. l Some schools in Psychology Voluntarism Structuralism Behaviorism Gestalt Etc.
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Empiricism- Structuralism Locke, Hume (Titchener, followers) Rationalism- Voluntarism Kant, Herbart Wundt, followers Psychophysics- Weber, Helmholtz active mind understand mental process wholism; not reductional reductionalistic sum of mental elements = consciousness laws: how elements combine Zeitgeist : scientific; psychology struggling for recognition; is it a worthy science?
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Voluntarism ¢ Will : According to Wundt, that aspect of humans that allows them to direct their attention anywhere they wish. ¢ Voluntarism : The name given to Wundt's school of psychology because of his belief that through the process of apperception, individuals could ( voluntarily ) direct their attention toward whatever they wished.
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Wilhelm Maxmilian Wundt ¢ Born at Neckarau, in Baden. ¢ Impressive lineage, but shy as a child ¢ Failed high school, teacher said work in the postal service ¢ Tried again in a new city and made it ¢ Studied medicine at Tübingen and Heidelberg (summa cum laude!) ¢ Studied briefly with Johannes Müller at Berlin before joining the University of Heidelberg, where he became an assistant to the physicist and physiologist Hermann von Helmholtz
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Wilhelm Maxmilian Wundt ¢ While at Heidelberg, he wrote Contributions to a Theory of Sense Impressions (1862) and Lectures on Human and Animal Psychology (1863) ¢ Took a one-year position at the University of Zürich ¢ Offered appointment to teach scientific philosophy at the University of Leipzig l Initially taught courses in Anthropology, logic and language.
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Psychology is Born!!!! ¢ It took him 4 years at Leipzig, but by 1879 his laboratory was functioning. ¢ The Institute for Experimental Psychology l Not listed in university catalog until 1883. l Eventually, classes at the institute exceeded 250 l Moved in 1882 to a nine room space. l Given own building in 1897 (which he designed). l Wundt supervised 186 doctoral theses at Leipzig
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Wilhelm Maxmilian Wundt Psychology’s Goals ¢ Believed that psychology had become an experimental science. l Experimentation can be used to reveal the basic processes of the mind. l Only naturalistic observation could be used to reveal the higher processes. l Let us remember the rule, valid for psychology as well as for other science, that we cannot understand the complex phenomena, before we have become familiar with the simple ones which presuppose the former.”
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Wilhelm Maxmilian Wundt Psychology’s Goals ¢ Mediate Experience : Experience that is provided by various measuring devices and is
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Chapter9VoluntarismStructuralismandOtherEarlyAp -...

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