Chapter8EarlyDevelopmentsinPhysiology

Chapter8EarlyDevelopmentsinPhysiology - Early Developments...

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Click to edit Master subtitle style Early Developments in Physiology and the Rise of Experimental Chapter 8
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Early Interest in Physiology 500 B.C. Alcmaeon: first(?) dissections 15th century: Leonardo Da Vinci -dissections despite papal ban 16th century: Michelangelo -Sistine Chapel -Dissections 16th-17th century Descartes: -Comparative animal dissections -Where does the mind and body interact? -Most philosophers had their own version of dualism 17th & 18th centuries -European Wars-- Chance to study head trauma -Executions: smiles & winks?
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Individual Differences ¢ 1795 David Kinnebrook, a research assistant of Nevil Maskelyne, was to assess the precise time that a star crossed the crosshairs of a telescope. He was consistently ½ s different from his advisor. He was fired. ¢ Reaction Time : The period of time between presentation of and response to a stimulus. ¢ Personal Equations : Mathematical formulae used to correct for differences in reaction time among observers.
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Discrepancy Between Objective and Subjective Reality ¢ Discrepancies between a physical event and a person’s perception of it was of great concern to natural scientists who viewed their jobs as accurately describing and explaining the physical world. ¢ The question of interest to the early scientists was “How do empirical sense impressions come to be represented in consciousness?” ¢ Physiology provided the link between mental philosophy and the science of psychology. ¢ The discrepancy made a science of psychology almost inevitable.
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Bell-Magendie Law ¢ Bell-Magendie Law : There are two types of nerves: sensory nerves carrying impulses from the sense receptors to the brain and motor nerves carrying impulses from the brain to the muscles and glands of the body.
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Doctrine of Specific Nerve Energies Johannes Müller ¢ Born in Koblenz, Germany ¢ Doctorate from University of Bonn (remember, the beer drinking students despised by Nietzsche?) ¢ Was chair of newly created physiology department at the University of Berlin l Creation of the department signaled acceptance of physiology as science. l Handbuch der Physiologie des Menschen (1833)
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Doctrine of Specific Nerve Energies Johannes Müller ¢ Doctrine of Specific Nerve Energies : Each sensory nerve, no matter how it is stimulated, releases an energy specific to that nerve. l Thus light, pressure, or mechanical stimulation acting on the retina and optic nerve invariably produces luminous impressions.
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Johannes Müller Adequate Stimulation ¢ All the sense organs are not equally receptive to all types of stimulation. ¢ Each of the sense organs is maximally sensitive to a certain type of stimulation ( specific irritability ). ¢ Adequate Stimulation
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This note was uploaded on 03/23/2011 for the course PSY 502 taught by Professor S during the Spring '11 term at S. Connecticut.

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Chapter8EarlyDevelopmentsinPhysiology - Early Developments...

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