Chapter6Rationalism

Chapter6Rationalism - Rationalism Chapter 6 Click to edit...

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Click to edit Master subtitle style Rationalism Chapter 6
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RATIONALISM: the mind is active or adds something to experience that is different from sensory data alone. Sensory data, alone, inadequate for describing thought Mind is not mechanical, it is logical, deductive Mind does not passively store information Mind possesses innate structures for extracting concepts Sensory Info Sensory Info Empiricist’s Mind Rationalist’s Mind
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Empiricism vs. Rationalism ¢ Empiricism : The belief that all knowledge is derived from experience, especially sensory experience. ¢ Rationalism : The philosophical position postulating an active mind that transforms sensory information and is capable of understanding abstract principles or concepts not attainable from sensory information alone.
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EMPIRICISM RATIONALISM Sensory ExperienceMental processes Association principles Organizing principles Passive mind Active mind Experimental Theoretical Reductionistic Holistic Inductive Deductive Empiricism vs. Rationalism
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Empiricism vs. Rationalism ¢ Empiricists generally propose: l Passive Mind : A mind whose contents are determined by sensory experience. It contains a few mechanistic principles (i.e. reflection) that organize, store, and generalize sensory experiences. ¢ Rationalists generally propose: l Active Mind : A mind equipped with categories or operations that are used to analyze, organize, or modify sensory information and to discover abstract concepts or principles not contained within sensory experience.
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Baruch Spinoza ¢ Born to a Sephardic family among the Portuguese Jews of Amsterdam. ¢ In the summer of 1656, he was excommunicated from the Jewish community for his claims that God is the mechanism of nature and the universe, and the Bible is a metaphorical and allegorical work used to teach the nature of God, both of which were based on a form of Cartesianism. ¢ Following his excommunication, he adopted the first name Benedictus.
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Baruch Spinoza Nature of God ¢ God not only started the world in motion, but was present everywhere in nature. ¢ Pantheism : The belief that God is present everywhere and in everything. ¢ Similar to primitive animism ¢ Eliminated the distinction between sacred and secular.
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Baruch Spinoza Mind-Body Relationship ¢ Double Aspectism : Material substance and consciousness are two inseparable aspects of everything in the universe, including humans. Also called psychophysical double aspectism and double-aspect monism . l The mind and body are two sides of the same coin, though different, they are the same coin.
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Baruch Spinoza Denial of Free Will ¢ God is nature and nature is lawful ¢ Humans are part of nature l Therefore, humans are determined ¢ In the mind there is not absolute or free will; but the mind is determined to wish this or that by a cause, which has also been determined by another cause, and this last by another cause, and so on to infinity .” ¢ Human ignorance of the causes leads us to believe in free-will.
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This note was uploaded on 03/23/2011 for the course PSY 502 taught by Professor S during the Spring '11 term at S. Connecticut.

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Chapter6Rationalism - Rationalism Chapter 6 Click to edit...

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