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Chapter5EmpiricismSensationalismandPositivism

Chapter5EmpiricismSensationalismandPositivism - Empiricism...

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Click to edit Master subtitle style Empiricism, Sensationalism, and Positivism Chapter 5
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Astronomy Physics Knowledge thru Observation Education/ spread of ideas through Europe. Personalized religion: Reconciliation between Freedom of expression, creativity/art Zeitgeist: The British Empiricists Science: Zeitgeist
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British Empiricism ¢ Empiricism : The belief that all knowledge is derived from experience, especially sensory experience (as opposed to nativism). l Knowledge cannot exist until a sensory experience has first been experienced. ¢ In a second sense empirical in science may be synonymous with experimental . In this sense, an empirical result is an experimental observation.
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British Empiricism Thomas Hobbes ¢ Born in 1588 in England ¢ His father abandoned the family early ¢ Educated at Oxford ¢ Was tutor for William, son of William of Cavendish ¢ Didn’t pursue philosophy until 1629 ¢ Spent much of his life in exile, afraid that he was a marked man during the English Civil War
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British Empiricism Thomas Hobbes Humans as Machines ¢ Humans can be understood using the techniques of geometry (deductive) l Using a few undeniable premises, many undeniable conclusions could be reached. l Universe consists solely of matter and motion, both understood mechanically. Humans are part of nature, therefore… Life is but motion of limbs. Heart but a spring Nerves like strings
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British Empiricism Thomas Hobbes Government Protects Humans from Destructive Instincts ¢ Leviathan (1651) ¢ Absolute monarchy was the best form of government l People are aggressive, selfish, and greedy and democracy allows these tendencies to emerge. l Only when people and church subservient to a monarch could there be law and order.
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British Empiricism Thomas Hobbes Explanations of Psychological Phenomena ¢ Attention: As long as sense organs retain the motion caused by an external object, they cannot respond to others. ¢ Imagination: Sense impressions decaying over time. ¢ Dreams: Decaying sense impressions while sleeping. l Vivid because other sensations not present
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British Empiricism Thomas Hobbes Explanation of Motivation ¢ Human behavior is motivated by appetite and aversion ( hedonism ) l Appetite : Seeking pleasurable experiences Sense impressions which facilitate vital functions Use terms like love and good l Aversion : Avoiding painful experiences Sense impressions incompatible with vital functions. Use terms like hate and evil
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British Empiricism John Locke ¢ Born in Wrington, Somerset, about ten miles from Bristol, England ¢ Lived during the English Revolution l Perhaps witnessed beheading of Charles I l His first publication was a poem which was a tribute to Oliver Cromwell. ¢ Locke earned a bachelor's degree in 1656 and a
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Chapter5EmpiricismSensationalismandPositivism - Empiricism...

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