werner - Molly Egan Crain, William (2011). Theories of...

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Molly Egan Crain, William (2011). Theories of Development: Concepts and Applications (6th Edition). Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall NATURE/NURTURE According to Werner’s theory, neither nature nor nurture play a dominant role, rather, nature and nurture are constantly and continually interacting with one another. PASSIVE/ACTIVE “Werner described how children’s oral language develops out of actions and feelings. Before children learn many conventional words, they create their own words that resonate with the sounds and actions of life around them, as when they refer to a dog as ‘rff’ and a hammer as ‘boom’” (Crain, 2011, p 113-114). QUALITATIVE/QUANTITATIVE Crain notes that although Werner attempted to take both quantitative and qualitative changes into account in order to employ a broad perspective,“he really believed that the most important changes are qualitative. The adult’s abstract thought, for example, differs in kind from the child’s perceptual-motor-affective thinking” (Crain, 2011, p. 109). “ Physiognomic perception, as we have seen, is attuned to the dynamic and expressive qualities of things. It is an early form of perception, dominant in children, and in our culture is superseded by a more geometric-technical outlook. We may sometimes revert to physiognomic modes, as in moments of creative regression, but we generally rely on more logical, rational modes of thought” (Crain, 2011, p. 108). STABILITY/INSTABILITY The fact that an individual can “ revert to physiognomic modes” suggests that Werner’s theory has an unstable quality. UNIVERSAL/INDIVIDUAL Werner’s description of the orthogenetic principle as being a universal law of development illustrates that Werner favored a universal perspective. LIFESPAN/TRADITIONAL Due to the fact that Werner addressed the education of adults demonstrates that his theory can best be described as employing a lifespan perspective of development. Specifically, Werner proposed the concept of microgenetic mobility, which means using global impressions in learning. For example. Werner suggests that in terms of educating pediatricians curriculums should include the thoughts and impressions of pediatricians of different levels of experience
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Molly Egan Quinn, P. C. (2002). Category representation in young infants. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 11, 66-70. Quinn begins his article by establishing the importance of mental representations for related entities that are believed to underlie the ability of human’s to categorize. HISTORICAL CONTEXT Key area of interest - when and how category representation begins. o Traditional belief was that category representation occurs later in life due to the fact that it was thought to be dependent on “the emergence of naming and language, the receipt of formal instruction, and the possession of logical reasoning skills.” o However, Rosch (1978) proposed that “object categories can be individuated by
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werner - Molly Egan Crain, William (2011). Theories of...

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