Crain, William (2011). Theories of Development: Concepts and Applications (6th Edition). Upper Saddle
River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall
According to Werner’s theory, neither nature nor nurture play a dominant role, rather, nature and
nurture are constantly and continually interacting with one another.
“Werner described how children’s oral language develops out of actions and feelings. Before
children learn many conventional words, they create their own words that resonate with the
sounds and actions of life around them, as when they refer to a dog as ‘rff’ and a hammer as
‘boom’” (Crain, 2011, p 113-114).
Crain notes that although Werner attempted to take both quantitative and qualitative changes into
account in order to employ a broad perspective,“he really believed that the most important
changes are qualitative. The adult’s abstract thought, for example, differs
from the child’s
perceptual-motor-affective thinking” (Crain, 2011, p. 109).
“ Physiognomic perception, as we have seen, is attuned to the dynamic and expressive qualities of
things. It is an early form of perception, dominant in children, and in our culture is superseded by
a more geometric-technical outlook. We may sometimes
to physiognomic modes, as in
moments of creative regression, but we generally rely on more logical, rational modes of
thought” (Crain, 2011, p. 108).
The fact that an individual can “
to physiognomic modes” suggests that Werner’s theory
has an unstable quality.
Werner’s description of the orthogenetic principle as being a universal law of development
illustrates that Werner favored a universal perspective.
Due to the fact that Werner addressed the education of adults demonstrates that his theory can
best be described as employing a lifespan perspective of development. Specifically, Werner
proposed the concept of microgenetic mobility, which means using global impressions in
that in terms of educating pediatricians
curriculums should include the thoughts and impressions of pediatricians
of different levels of experience