Chapter 2 Notes

Chapter 2 Notes - I ngrid Shih BIO 1305-08 27 August 2010...

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Ingrid Shih BIO 1305-08 27 August 2010 Small Molecules and Chemistry (Chapter 2) Isotopes Number of neutrons differs Radioisotopes- unstable o Used in dating fossils by using ratio of C-12 and C-14 Used up to 50,000 years old o Radio-labeling Covalent Bonds Strongest type of bond Share valence electrons Unequal sharing- causes polar bonds Ionic Bonds Difference in electronegativity Cations (+) Anions (-) Stable solid compounds- salts Hydrophilic interactions- hydrogen bonding Hydrophobic interactions- nonpolar molecules are not going to associated with water molecules Van der Waals effect- brief polar bonds in nonpolar molecules Water Occurs as solid, liquid and gas naturally Polar- hydrogen bonding Tetrahedral shape Interesting fact: the solid water is less dense than liquid water (unusual) High heat capacity Specific Heat- takes lots of energy to raise 1g of water 1º Heat of vaporization- takes lots of energy to change liquid water to vapor Cohesion and surface tension
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Chapter 2 Notes - I ngrid Shih BIO 1305-08 27 August 2010...

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